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ISAW Papers 20.9 (2021)

Linked Open Data for Greek and Latin Authors and Works

Alison Babeu, Tufts University, and Paul Dilley, University of Iowa1

In: Sarah E. Bond, Paul Dilley, and Ryan Horne, eds. 2021. Linked Open Data for the Ancient Mediterranean: Structures, Practices, Prospects. ISAW Papers 20.


Abstract: In this chapter, we first discuss the transition from modern scholarly print canons, which rely on numbered entries to produce authoritative lists of authors and works, to online versions of these canons, providing a survey of resources in these areas. We next turn to the Perseus Catalog as a specific example of an online canon. Finally, we discuss linked open data as it relates to authors and works within more general bibliographic catalogues, such as VIAF.

Library of Congress Subjects: Classical literature--History and criticism; Linked data.

Greek and Latin writings have been transmitted and studied for over two millennia, leaving behind what is at once a testament to sustained humanistic endeavor and a fragmentary legacy of lost texts. There is a long tradition of collecting basic information regarding Greek and Latin works (as well as other related ancient literary languages), and the authors who wrote them, and presenting it in lists, often called “canons,” often for particular sub-categories, e.g. classical and Christian2 In this brief chapter, we first discuss the transition from modern scholarly print canons, which rely on numbered entries to produce authoritative lists of authors and works, to online versions of these canons, providing a survey of resources in these areas. We next turn to the Perseus Catalog as a specific example of an online canon. Finally, we discuss linked open data as it relates to authors and works within more general bibliographic catalogues, such as VIAF.

I. From Print to Digital Canons

Over the past several decades, the shift to a digital, and eventually an online, environment for texts has spurred the creation of new canons of Greek and Latin authors and works, as well as the transition of print lists, such as those of the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (TLL) and Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG), to the internet. In this section, we survey the canons from both the print and the digital eras, first treating Greek and Latin separately, then several languages of the Late Antique Mediterranean primarily associated with Christianity, such as Syriac and Coptic, and finally, multilingual canons.

Standard references for authors and works are usually referred to as “canons,” from the Greek κανών, or measure. Somewhat ironically, in the biblical context, “canon” denotes a privileged selection of texts, to the exclusion of others.3 The Hellenistic poet Callimachus pursued a different strategy in the pinakes, which aimed to be a comprehensive list of Greek literature arranged by topic, and, within that, by author.4 This approach has more in common with modern scholarship, going back to the 19th century, which created new canonical lists of ancient authors and works, drawing on the corpus of print editions that had been expanding since the Renaissance.5

The longtime standard for Greek authors and works is the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, founded in 1971 by Marianne McDonald at the University of California, Irvine, where it is still based.6 It currently contains “most texts written in Greek from Homer (8 c. B.C.) to the fall of Byzantium in AD 1453.”7 While not the first attempt to collect all known Greek authors and works,8 it is the most comprehensive. The TLG includes electronic versions of texts, based on print editions, as well as the TLG Canon, which is a list of authors and works, originally published in print, over three editions.9 The current version of the Canon, which is periodically updated, is now available online.10 For Christian texts, the Clavis Patrum Graecorum is the standard canonical list of authors and works. It was published in several volumes, some with multiple editions, between 1974 and 2018.11 There is substantial overlap with the Christian works covered in the TLG, although the Clavis also includes some works only extant in translations; and some known only by name, that have been entirely lost.

Another extensive resource for ancient Greek is the Diccionario Griego-Español, which includes a lengthy list of authors and works, including many fragmentary ones, most of which are quoted in the 8-volume dictionary.  The list and its supplements are now available online.12 The widespread genre of hagiography, that is, the lives of saints, for which the TLG and the Clavis do not provide full coverage, was treated in print in the Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca,13 the famous long-term effort of the Bollandists;14 it has now been published in a searchable online version, as part of the Pinakes database at the Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes.15

For Latin, a longstanding list of authors and works is provided by the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (TLL), a dictionary project begun in 1894 and still ongoing, which aims to produce “the first comprehensive dictionary of ancient Latin,” with coverage through 600 CE.16 Entries in the TLL contain references to a large number of relevant ancient works, which are found in the index, further classified by author. The second edition of the index’s printed version (1990) is now available online.17 For Christian texts, the Clavis Patrum Latinorum (CPL)18 is an exhaustive list of works by patristic authors in Latin between the second century and Bede (i.e. 735 CE), including some lost writings; in this respect, its coverage goes beyond both the TLL and the Patrologia Latina, the previous standard series of Christian patristic Latin works.19 Brepols, the publishers of the CPL, also offer by subscription the Library of Latin Texts - online (LLT-0), which includes ancient, Late Antique, and medieval texts, all with their own unique identifiers.20 For Christian hagiography, the Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina, originally published in print, is now available online.21 

The digital era has seen the creation of a number of impressive resources for Latin. The Packard Canon, a database of Latin texts launched at the Packard Humanities Institute in the 1970s, was released online in 2015.22 The Packard Canon includes all Latin authors from the earliest period through the second century CE, including a number of fragmentary texts. For non-Christian texts from Late Antiquity, digilibLT, the Digital Library of Late-Antique Latin Texts, was established by Raffaella Tabacco and Maurizio Lana at the University of Eastern Piedmont “Amedeo Avogadro” in 2010.23 DigilibLT offers a number of resources, among them a canon of authors and works, including grammatical and legal writings; electronic texts in various formats; and short entries and bibliographies.24 The Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum, which encompasses a variety of grammatical texts, was founded by Nino Marinone and colleagues at the University of Turin in the 1970s; the current online project is directed by Alessandro Garcea at the University of Paris-Sorbonne and Valeria Lomanto at the University of Turin.25 For Latin poetry, MQDQ, Musisque Deoque: A Digital Archive of Latin Poetry,26 a collaboration among a number of Italian universities, offers electronic texts in diverse meters from Antiquity to the Renaissance, and includes an index of authors and works.27

Another online resource, the Digital Latin Library, has been established as a joint project of the Society for Classical Studies, the Medieval Academy of America, and the Renaissance Society of America, and thus encompasses Ancient, Late Antique, Medieval, and Renaissance Latin texts. Under the direction of Samuel Huskey at the University of Oklahoma, it will provide new digital editions of Latin texts from these periods, and also includes the DLL Catalog, which “provides an organized, curated system for finding Latin texts available online.”28 The DLL Catalog maintains authority records for both authors and works, and the possibility of downloading linked data for authors’ authority records as an RDF file.  

Coptic authors and works are recorded in the born-digital Clavis Patrum Copticorum, founded by Tito Orlandi.29 These present challenges for integration with Greek counterparts: while some are translations of Greek originals, others are pseudepigraphically attributed to a known Greek author (such as Athanasius of Alexandria), yet are original Coptic compositions. The Clavis is adopted by the project “PAThs - Tracking Papyrus and Parchment Paths: An Archaeological Atlas of Coptic Literature. Literary Texts in their Geographical Context,” directed by Paola Buzi at the Sapienza University of Rome.30 PATHs relates both known and newly discovered works to their manuscript evidence. Several digital resources for Syriac authors and works are offered by, edited by David Michaelson at Vanderbilt University: A Guide to Syriac Authors, a reference for Syriac literary authors and their works;31 and the Bibliotheca Hagiographica Syriaca Electronica, a list of saints’ lives.32 For the Christian literature of Ethiopia, a canon of works in Ge’ez is also in development.33

A few canons encompass works in Greek, Latin, and other ancient Mediterranean languages. The Leuven Database of Ancient Books, part of Trismegistos, contains information about manuscript evidence for ancient works.34 The Clavis Historicorum Antiquitatis Posterioris (CHAP), directed by Peter van Nuffelen and Lieve van Hoof at the University of Ghent, “inventorises all historiographical works of Late Antiquity (300 until 800 AD) in Latin, Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Arabic, Coptic and, to a lesser extent, Hebrew, Aramaic and Persian.”35 It includes works which do not survive, for which there is some evidence of existence. Christian apocryphal works (many of which are also pseudepigraphic) are collected in the separate print volumes, Clavis Apocryphorum Novi Testamenti36 and Clavis Apocryphorum Veteris Testamenti.37 These are now part of Brepols’ Clavis Clavium, alongside the Clavis Patrum Latinorum, Clavis Patrum Graecorum, Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latinorum, and Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graecorum.38 In addition, there is now an extensive online Clavis for apocryphal literature, e-Clavis, currently being developed under the direction of the North American Society for the Study of Apocryphal Literature.39

The Iowa Canon of Ancient Authors and Works, directed by Paul Dilley at the University of Iowa, is currently under development, with the goal of providing an exhaustive list of known authors and works through approximately 600 CE.40 It will provide extensive metadata for each work, including the date of its composition, by year, if known, and by century; the place of its composition, or primary residence of its author, and the corresponding geographical URI from Pleiades; authorial information, including possible status as pseudepigraphic or disputed; its status as complete, fragmentary, or lost; its status as a translation or an original composition; its status as Christian or non-Christian; attested abbreviations; a genre designation based on the project’s genre typology; selected critical edition(s); and cross-references to the URIs offered by the Perseus Catalog, as well as other canonical identifiers, both print and online.41 The Iowa Canon of Ancient Authors and Works differs from most other catalogues in its inclusion of works that are known by title, but have otherwise been lost; it also provides separate entries for fragmentary works, rather than collecting them all together under a single title, such as Fragmenta.42 Finally, it will offer faceted search of the metadata through a map-centered interface, with visualizations based on the places of composition for the selected works.

II. The Perseus Catalog

As one of the older and extensive digital projects aimed at organizing and providing access to metadata for classical Greek and Latin texts, the development of the Perseus Catalog offers some useful lessons in planning for the future of online canons, and will thus be explored as a case study in further detail.43

Catalog Overview and Goals

Plans for the Perseus Catalog44 were first developed in 2005, when an experimental FRBR-inspired catalog was built for the Perseus Digital Library (PDL)45 classical text collection.

Over the next few years numerous massive digital book collections began to come online such as Google Books and the Open Content Alliance of the Internet Archive, collections that included thousands of Greek and Latin editions in the public domain. Since at the time the PDL assumed it would never be able to create TEI-XML editions for so many authors and works, it was decided to create an extensible and growing catalog, inspired by the FRBR entity relationship model. The major goal was to design a catalog that bridged the gap between the deep but narrow coverage of disciplinary bibliographies such as the TLG Canon and the much broader but necessarily shallower metadata found within library cataloging systems regarding classical editions.

Disciplinary bibliographies such as the TLG Canon offered extensive coverage of many authors and works (including many that are fragmentary) that often did not have separate editions and were not always found in general library authority lists. These bibliographies also served as checklists of editions but were not designed to represent the multiple editions of authors often found in online collections. Such bibliographies were also designed to cover closed collections not those that were available freely online. In addition, while library cataloging systems refer to multiple editions of the same work (as well as all types of related works such as commentaries, translations, derivative works, etc.), these relations are often unstated or only poorly formulated, and catalog records of necessity largely focused on books as a whole rather than on logical units within books (such as the hundreds of authors contained in the Greek Anthology). Active work on metadata creation for the expanded Perseus Catalog thus began in 2006 and the main desiderata was to provide granular intellectual access (or analytical cataloging data so to speak) to individual works by classical authors at the online page level in these initial digitized editions, from single author-single work volumes to the massive five volume Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum (containing hundreds of works).

Main Standards Used in the Perseus Catalog

The Perseus Catalog design was greatly influenced by the IFLA FRBR standard, or Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records.46 FRBR is an entity-relationship model that was designed as a conceptual framework to help libraries create bibliographic records independent of any one set of cataloging rules. The Perseus Catalog is often described internally as FRBR inspired rather than FRBR compliant because it does not follow all aspects of the FRBR model. Nonetheless, the FRBR model Group 1 entities, or works, expressions, manifestations, and items (sometimes known as WEMI) have been utilized by the catalog in terms of organizing its bibliographic data. While a work is defined as a “distinct intellectual or artistic creation”, an expression is the “intellectual or artistic realization” of that work, a manifestation physically embodies the expression of that work, and an item is a single copy of that manifestation.

For example, Homer’s Iliad is a work, a critical edition of that work by Thomas Allen is an expression, a publication of that edition in 1920 by Oxford Classical Texts (OCT) is a manifestation, and an individual library copy is an item, a single published version of a work.

The Canonical Text Service Protocol (CTS)47 and its related CITE Architecture, both developed by the Homer Multitext project,48 are the other key standards that support the Perseus catalog data architecture. The FRBR model has also influenced the CTS protocol albeit with some key differences. The CTS text hierarchy has defined a level called the textgroup that is above the work level because a definition was needed that could include traditional authors of literary texts but that could also encompass authorship groups such as entire corpus collections. These textgroups require unique identifiers. While works are defined in the same way as FRBR, expressions have been modeled as editions/translations, a practice that the Perseus Catalog has also followed in terms of indicating particular published versions of works.

The most important part of the CTS standard, in terms of the Perseus Catalog implementation, is that CTS supports a network service that can be used to identify and retrieve text fragments with canonical references that are expressed by CTS-URNs. Within the catalog these CTS-URNs are used to serve as both version identifiers and canonical URIs for editions/ translations and they draw upon work identifiers from three classical canons: the TLG, the PHI, and STOA Consortium list of Latin authors.49 To return to our example of an edition above, Allen’s 1920 edition of the Iliad published by the OCT, the CTS-URN for the Greek edition of this work available in the PDL would be urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0012.tlg001.perseus-grc1.50 To explain, tlg0012 is the textgroup identifier for Homer (author 0012 in the TLG Canon), tlg001 is the TLG work identifier for the Iliad, and perseus-grc1 is the edition or version identifier.

Perseus Catalog Bibliographic and Authority Records

Active metadata creation began for the Perseus Catalog in 2006 and continues to the present day. Bibliographic records were either downloaded and enhanced or created for all of the editions in the PDL as well as for hundreds of digitized editions found within Google Books, the OCA and the HathiTrust digital library, while at the same time authority records were created or enhanced for several thousand classical authors.  In addition, metadata creation began in 2016 for the authors and works included in a major partner project Open Greek and Latin (OGL)51 and continues presently.

The first interface for the Perseus Catalog went online in 2013 and through a Blacklight52 instance provides searchable access to both the catalog’s bibliographic records (for editions and translations) and authority records (for authors and textgroups). Two pre-existing Library of Congress (LC) metadata schemas were chosen for use in this work: the MODS (Metadata Objection Description Standard)53 XML schema was used for bibliographic metadata and MADS (Metadata Authority Description Standard)54 was used for authority records. All of the Perseus Catalog’s metadata is currently available on GitHub.55

MODS records for editions have typically had the following information added: unique identifiers and authorized headings from library systems for author names and work titles; work identifiers from relevant classics canons; structured metadata for all the individual works in a volume; links to online bibliographic records in and to digital manifestations in collections such as Google Books, and finally, page level links for individual works in large multi-work volumes. MADS authority records typically included the following enhancements: addition of lists of variant names with language encoded; standard identifiers (e.g. VIAF number); lists of work identifiers for linking to MODS records; abbreviations from standard reference works; and links to online reference sources such as Wikipedia.

When the Perseus Catalog beta went live in May 2013, there had not been time to implement full linked open data (LOD). Nonetheless, all of the resources within the larger PDL use Perseus data URIs and are published under the URI prefix. The Perseus Catalog was no exception and a catalog path element (e.g<textgroup urn>[/format]) was used to distinguish URIs for catalog records from those for PDL texts. The catalog includes published URIs for textgroups, works, editions and translations, and so for example, the textgroup URI for Homer is: whereas for the Iliad it is: Users can also link to an ATOM feed for the catalog metadata for any textgroup, work or edition/translation by appending the format path to the URI. Publishing and maintaining these URIs had been a key requirement for the beta release of the catalog.

Due to a variety of issues, the current Perseus catalog instance in Blacklight is not likely to be updated for the foreseeable future, indeed, a new interface may be developed at some point given funding and staffing resources. At the same time, the current interface will not be deprecated and the published URIs for textgroups, works and authors will remain available. A large metadata assessment and conversion project also began in 2017 and the FRBRoo ontology is being used to model the inherent FRBR relationships between the works, expressions and manifestations in the catalog data. Another goal of this data conversion project has been to make the Perseus catalog data finally available as full LOD. Consequently, an initial experimental RDF knowledge base of statements about authors, works, expressions and manifestations has been developed utilizing the Perseus Catalog’s MADS records and a related PDL created open access bibliography of classical editions. An additional knowledge base of statements that relate expressions to their manifestations has been generated from the converted MODS records. Upon completion and eventual release, the Perseus Digital Library team hopes that this knowledge base might allow fellow librarians and scholars to update and or correct the catalog metadata and link to it more easily.

III. Linked Open Data on OCLC: VIAF and WorldCat

Ancient authors and works are also found in linked data formats in several global library services. In particular, the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC, formerly Ohio College Library Center)56, an international consortium of research libraries, maintains WorldCat, “the world’s largest library catalog”57, as well as VIAF (Virtual International Authority File), which “combines multiple authority files into a single OCLC-hosted name authority service. The goal of this service is to lower the cost and utility of library authority files by matching and linking widely-used authority files and making that information available on the web.”58 VIAF in particular is critical for linked open data, including for ancient authors and works, especially as they relate to world languages. Thus, for example, searching “Augustine” in the “Personal Names” field will result in a variety of different forms of his name, all under the single VIAF ID: 66806872. These forms correspond to the authority file for Augustine as recorded in various national libraries, such as the Library of Congress (America), the BNF (France), the DNB (Germany), the BLBNB (Brazil), etc. These files can be consulted, and include various metadata arranged according to the MARC schema, including dates, location, and profession. In addition, there is a list of works by the author – in the case of Augustine, over 300, though not exclusive.  

IV. Conclusion

While there is no fully developed infrastructure for linked open data about authors and works in Greek, Latin, and other ancient Mediterranean languages, various components are coming into shape. On the most basic level, curated datasets, often in specialized areas, are being created; some of these build on earlier printed canons, while many are born digital. These projects are increasingly providing data related to fragmentary or lost works; multiple versions and translations; and even manuscript sources. Finally, aspects of a web infrastructure, such as the stable URIs of the Perseus Catalog, are also in development; future applications might include more extensive use of data structured by the “work” “creator” “author” triplet,59 and further integration with other forms of linked data, such as geographical and prosopographical data.


1 Alison Babeu wrote section II, Paul Dilley wrote sections I and III, and both contributed to the introduction and conclusion.

2 In this article we will consider the earliest written texts in Greek and Latin through approximately 600 CE, an admittedly arbitrary cut-off.  We will also consider authors and works in various languages of Late Antiquity, such as Syriac and Coptic, with close connections to Greek Christian literature.

3 See Lee Martin McDonald, The Biblical Canon: Its Origin, Transmission, and Authority (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007).

4 Rudolf Blum, Kallimachos. The Alexandrian Library and the Origins of Bibliography, trans. H. Wellisch (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991).

5 Similarly, large-scale histories of ancient Greek and Latin literature sought to provide an overview of Greek and Latin in a comprehensive way, beyond the standard authors and works.



8 For an overview of the TLG, see Maria Pantelia, “The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae Project: Looking towards the 21st Century” in J.N. Kazazis, ed., The Lexicography of Ancient, Medieval and Modern Greek Literature, J.N. Kazazis (ed.) (Thessaloniki, 2003), 31-37, 151-156.

9 Luci Berkowitz and Karl A. Squitier, Thesaurus Linguae Graecae Canon of Greek Authors and Works, 3rd ed. (Oxford University Press, 1990).


11 Maurice Geerard, Jacques Noret, et al., Clavis Patrum Graecorum, 7 volumes (Turnhout: Brepols, 1974-2018). Unlike the TLG, the CPG includes entries for works that are not extant.  It thus supercedes the Patrologia Graeca, the previous standard series of Christian patristic Greek works, which is now available online:


13 François Halkin, ed., Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca, 3rd ed. (Brussels: Société des Bollandistes, 1957).

14 On the work of the Bollandists, see David Knowles, Great Historical Enterprises: Problems in Monastic History (Edinburgh, 1963), 1-32.




18 Eligius Dekkers, Clavis Patrum Latinorum, 3rd ed. (Turnhout: Brepols, 1995), which stands at 2,348 entries.

19 The Patrologia Latina is now available online in its entirety:

20 These in turn belong to the larger Brepolis Latin Online corpus.


22 The Packard List has been extended by the Stoa Registry of Latin Literature, which was never published in print, but is incorporated into the Perseus Catalog.


24 See further Maurizio Lana, “Un database testuale per il latino tardo” in Domenico Fiormonte and Lorenzo Perilli, eds., La macchina nel tempo. Studi di informatica umanistica in onore di Tito Orlandi (Firenze: Le Lettere, 2011), 281-300; Raffaella Tabacco, “La tarda antichità latina tra i codici e il web,” Aevum Antiquum 11 (2011), 3-17; and Alice Borgna, “From Ancient Texts to Maps (and Back Again) in the Digital World. The DigilibLT Project,” Revista de Humanidades Digitales 1 (2017), 296-313:

25 See currently


27 See Paolo Mastandrea and Linda Spinazzè, eds., Nuovi archivi e mezzi d’analisi per i testi poetici.  I lavori del progetto Musisque Deoque. Venezia, 21-23 giugno 2010 (Amsterdam: Hackert, 2011).

28  See further Samuel Huskey, “The Digital Latin Library: Cataloging and Publishing Critical Editions of Latin Texts,” in Monica Berti, ed., Digital Classical Philology: Ancient Greek and Latin in the Digital Revolution (Berlin: DeGruyter, 2019), 19-34.

29  See further Tito Orlandi, “The CMCL Clavis Coptica.  On Producing a Standardized List of (Coptic) Works and Manuscripts,” in COMSt Bulletin 4/1 (2018), 107-114:


31, for which the editors are David Michelson and Nathan Gibson.

32; and, for which the general editors are Jeane-Nicole Mellon Saint-Laurent, David Michelson, Ugo Zanetti, and Claude Detienne.




36 Maurice Gerard, Clavis Apocryphorum Novi Testamenti (Turnhout: Brepols, 1992).

37 Jean-Claude Haelwyck, Clavis Apocryphorum Veteris Testamenti (Turnhout: Brepols, 1998).



40 A beta version consisting of Latin authors and works, with a smaller selection of Greek ones, will be released in Spring 2021.  Paul Dilley is the PI, Ryan Horne is the lead developer, with contributions from Ed Keogh. A number of undergraduate and graduate students have contributed to the project: Ed Keogh, Noah Anderson, and Spencer Schmalz (developers); Kenneth Elliot, Elijah Fleming, Tyler Fyotek, Sarah Hales, Caitlin Marley, Peter Miller, Bob Morley, Daniel Munn, Echo Smith, Dana Spyridakos, Jeremy Swist, Ryan Tribble, Jonathan Young, and Wenxuan Xu (data research). The Iowa Canon is a module of the Big Ancient Mediterranean project (Sarah Bond and Paul Dilley, PIs; Ryan Horne, lead developer).

41 The canonical lists which the Iowa Canon will cross-reference include the Perseus Catalog (which itself references the TLG, the Packard Canon, and the Stoa Registry), Patrologia Graeca and Patrologia Latina, Clavis Patrum Latinorum, DigilibLT, Digital Latin Library, Musisque Deoque, Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca, Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina, the Clavis Apocryphorum Novi Testamenti, the Clavis Apocryphorum Veteris Testamenti, Brepols LLT, and VIAF.  

42 For a contemporary, digital approach to fragmentary works, see the Digital Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, directed by Monica Berti:

43 For a fuller history of the Perseus Catalog and its current development status, please see Alison Babeu, “The Perseus Catalog: of FRBR, Finding Aids, Linked Data and Open Greek and Latin” in Monica Berti, ed., Digital Classical Philology: Ancient Greek and Latin in the Digital Revolution (Berlin: DeGruyter, 2019), 53-72.  Available at:



46 IFLA first published the FRBR standard in 1998 (

47 more on the CITE standard, CTS and how they are being used in digital Classics projects, please see Christopher Blackwell and Neel Smith, “The CITE Architecture: a Conceptual and Practical Overview,” in Monica Berti, ed., Digital Classical Philology: Ancient Greek and Latin in the Digital Revolution (Berlin: DeGruyter, 2019), 73-94:


49 TLG (; PHI (; STOA (


51 For more on the OGL collaboration see ( and to view the authors and works in this collection please visit the Scaife Viewer (





56 For linked data on OCLC, see

57; according to the site, “Worldcat connects you to the collections and services of more than 10,000 libraries worldwide.”

58 The Perseus Digital Library is a contributor to VIAF. For the creation of Syriac VIAF files, and some related complications, see this 2013 post by David Michelson and Karen Smith-Yoshimura, “Irreconcilable differences? Name authority control & humanities scholarship”:

59 See Jonathan Blaney, “Introduction to the Principles of Linked Open Data,” (2017; modified 2020): (Accessed August 10, 2020).