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Guide to the IBM European Business Archive
ca. 1915-1960 (bulk 1933-1945)
 MSS 126

Fales Library and Special Collections
Elmer Holmes Bobst Library
70 Washington Square South
New York, NY 10012
Phone: (212) 998-2596
Email: fales.library@nyu.edu


Fales Library and Special Collections

Collection processed by Bryan O'Keefe, 2009.

This finding aid was produced using the Archivists' Toolkit on April 03, 2014

Descriptive Summary

 
Creator: International Business Machines Corporation.
Title: IBM European Business Archive
Dates: ca. 1910-1960 (bulk 1933-1945)
Abstract: The IBM European Business Archive contains administrative and legal materials documenting the relationship between IBM and its subsidiaries in Germany, with the bulk of the materials deriving from 1933-1945. Much of the remainder of the collection relates to IBM’s subsequent efforts to regain shareholder control of its German subsidiaries and machines after Allied victory.
Quantity: 6.0 linear feet
Call Phrase: MSS 126

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Historical Note

International Business Machines Corporation was incorporated in New York State on June 16, 1911 under the name Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. In 1922, Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. purchased all of the shares of Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft. In 1924 the official name of the company was changed to International Business Machines Corporation. In 1933, IBM CEO Thomas Watson ordered the merger of IBM subsidiaries in Germany (Optima, Degemag, Holgemag, Dehomag) under the name Dehomag, granting the company rights to sell Hollerith punch-card machines throughout Europe.

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Scope and Content

The IBM European Business Archive contains materials related to the functioning of IBM and its German subsidiaries, with an emphasis on documents produced during and after World War II. At the folder level, materials cover a large date range, often from the early inter-war period to the early nineteen-sixties.

The most frequently occurring name in the collection is Willy Heidinger, creator of the firm Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft (AKA DHMG or Dehomag). DHMG was a corporation devoted to the manufacture and sale of electronic punch-card devices for census use in Europe; it was eventually incorporated by IBM in 1933. The majority of the documents in series I and II refer to contested capital restructuring agreements between Heidinger and principal parties in German and American offices of IBM. Others involved in these disputes include Karl Humell and Hermann Rottke, Dehomag directors who received "loans" from IBM NY to give the appearance of compliance with the Third Reich's "Germanization" policies. These loan agreements are referenced in documents including Photostat copies of correspondence, original telegrams, and transcripts of phone conversations and other communication. Many of the documents are present in both German and English versions.

After the war, IBM engaged in recouping all of its Dehomag assets that had been displaced during the war. Attorney Harrison Chauncey, a chief negotiator for IBM NY, is represented here by travel documents, telegrams, and correspondence describing his visits to Germany to negotiate settlements between IBM and Dehomag representatives. Newspaper clippings and other ephemera appear inter alia, in their original context.

Accounting procedures for Dehomag are represented in Series III by general ledgers from 1933-1938 from three IBM Germany components (Optima, Gegemag and Dehomag). Series I contains extensive documentation of IBM's European assets as of the immediate post-war period, including investment recovery data, annual reports, account statements, auditors' reports, and location of rental machines in Europe.

SOURCES:

Black, E. (2001). IBM and the Holocaust: The strategic alliance between Nazi Germany and America's most powerful corporation. New York: Crown.

International Business Machines, Corp. In Business & Company Resource Center. Retrieved July 24, 2009, from http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ BCRC?vrsn=unknown&locID=nysl_me_tnypl&srchtp=glbc&cc=1&c=1&mode=c&ste=60&tbst=tsCM&tab=1&ccmp=International+Business+Machines+Corp.&mst=IBM&n=25&bConts=13311&ses=1

Dillard, J. (2003, Fall2003). "Professional Services, IBM, and the Holocaust." Journal of Information Systems, 17(2), 1-16. Retrieved July 24, 2009, from Business Source Premier database.

Arrangement note

The IBM European Business Archive is organized alphabetically by broad subject headings reflecting the original arrangement of the IBM corporate archives. The collection is arranged into three series, retaining the series arrangement it had when it arrived at Fales from IBM Corporate Archives, via the Skirball Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies at NYU. New arrangement schemes have only been imposed when large files contained tabbed subfolders, when a volume or pamphlet required its own folder, or when delicate or oversized material demanded removal from the original order.

  1. Series I: European Office Records
  2. Series II: Legal Records
  3. Series III: Ledgers
  4. Oversize - Series I: European Office Records

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Access Points

Subject Names

  • Chauncey, Harrison
  • Heidinger, Willy
  • Hummel, Karl
  • Rottke, Hermann
  • Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956

Document Type

  • Business records.
  • Ledgers (account books)
  • Legal documents.

Subject Organizations

  • Degemag.
  • Gegemag.
  • Ingemag.
  • Optima.

Subject Topics

  • Holocaust.
  • World War, 1939-1945 -- Germany.

Subject Places

  • Germany.

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Administrative Information

Provenance

The materials were given by the IBM Corporate Archives on "short-term loan" to NYU's Skirball Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies in 1999. In 2001 the collection was officially donated and transferred to the Fales Library and Special Collections.

Conditions Governing Access

Open to researchers. Appointments are necessary for the use of manuscript and archival collections.

Conditions Governing Use

Collection use is subject to all copyright laws. Permission to publish materials must be obtained in writing from the Director of Fales Library and Special Collections. Please contact fales.library@nyu.edu. or call 212 998 2596.

Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:

Identification of item, date (if known); IBM European Business Archive; MSS 126; box number; folder number; Fales Library and Special Collections, New York University Libraries.

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Container List

Series I: European Office Records

Scope and Content note

SERIES I: European Office Records is composed of office records, grouped alphabetically by subject headings. The bulk of this series is devoted to financial correspondence between the IBM office in New York and IBM subsidiaries in Germany, including Degemag, Dehomag and Optima.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 1 Folder : 1 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Auditor's Report Dated May 10, 1947 on an Examination of the Accounts at December 31, 1945
1947
Box: 1 Folder : 2 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Auditor's Report, 1948
1949
Box: 1 Folder : 3 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Auditor's Report Dated May 15, 1949 on an Examination of the Tentative Accounts at June, 1948
1949
Box: 1 Folder : 4 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Auditor's Report Dated June 20, 1950, on an Examination of the Tentative Accounts at December 31, 1949
1949-1950
Box: 1 Folder : 5 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Auditor's Reports of 1950, 1951
1950-1951
Box: 1 Folder : 6 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Balance Sheets
1948
Box: 1 Folder : 7 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Correspondence Related to IBM Property Other Than Dehomag
1947
Box: 1 Folder : 8 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Correspondence Related to Recovery of Possession and Control of IBM Interests in Germany
1945-1946
Box: 1 Folder : 9 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Dehomag Account Statements - IBM Offices Outside Germany
1947
Box: 1 Folder : 10 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Dehomag Correspondence
1947
Box: 1 Folder : 11 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Dehomag Tax Situation
1947
Box: 1 Folder : 12 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Directors, Officers, Principal Managers of Dehomag as on December 31, 1946
1947
Box: 1 Folder : 13 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Explanations as to Comparative Balance Sheet and Statement of Proofit and Loss
1949-1950
Box: 1 Folder : 14 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: List of Plants, Sales, and Administrative Offices of Dehomag
1947
Box: 1 Folder : 15 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Material for the Calculation of Value of Minority Interest: Heidinger, Hummel, Rottke
Box: 1 Folder : 16 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Pre-War Rental Equipment
1947
Box: 1 Folder : 17 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Registration of American-Owned Property
1941
Box: 1 Folder : 18 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Report on Dehomag Operating Methods
1947
Box: 1 Folder : 19 Conditions as of December 31, 1946: Stockholders of Dehomag, Documents Related to Capital Correction
1941-1947
Box: 1 Folder : 20 Correspondence and Memoranda
1941-1946
Box: 1 Folder : 21 Decontrol of IBM Interests in Germany
1947-1951
Box: 2 Folder : 1 Hummel and Rottke Loan Accounts - Divident Prepaid to Heidinger
1938-1940
Box: 2 Folder : 2 Inter-Company Account (1 of 2)
1949-1950
Box: 2 Folder : 3 Inter-Company Account (2 of 2)
1948-1951
Box: 2 Folder : 4 Inter-Company Account Reconciliations
1940-1942
Box: 2 Folder : 5 International Business Machines Corporation, New York: General Report and Enclosures 1-4
1945-1946
Box: 2 Folder : 6 International Business Machines Corporation, New York: General Report Enclosure, 5-7
1944-1945
Box: 2 Folder : 7 Investment Recovered
1948-1953
Box: 2 Folder : 8 Investment Recovery Data (1 of 4)
1951-1952
Box: 2 Folder : 9 Investment Recovery Data (2 of 4)
1951-1952
Box: 2 Folder : 10 Investment Recovery Data (3 of 4)
1940-1949
Box: 3 Folder : 1 Investment Recovery Data (4 of 4)
1946-1949
Box: 3 Folder : 2 Investment Recovery Data/Investment Analysis
1939-1949
Box: 3 Folder : 3 National Region Trade Council, Inc. (1 of 2)
1947-1948
Box: 3 Folder : 4 National Region Trade Council, Inc. (2 of 2)
1948-1951
Box: 3 Folder : 5 New York Goods Account Statement
1940-1951
Box: 3 Folder : 6 Rental Machines
1945-1950
Box: 3 Folder : 7 Reports to Military Authorities
1945-1947
Box: 3 Folder : 8 Saar Territory
1948
Box: 3 Folder : 9 Special Reports-New York
1945-1957

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Series II: Legal Records

Scope and Content note

SERIES II: Legal Records is composed of Legal Records containing documentary evidence of transactions between IBM and its subsidiaries, including telephone transcripts, telegrams and letters.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 4 Folder : 1 Annual Report: "Deutsche Bank und Disconto-Gesellschaft"
1933
Box: 4 Folder : 2 Bulletins, Opinions, Revelations, Correspondence
1932-1966
Box: 4 Folder : 3 Capitalization and Incorporation: Degemag
1939
Box: 4 Folder : 4 Capitalization and Incorporation: "Gesellschaft für Geschaftmaschinen"
1910-1951
Box: 4 Folder : 5 Capitalization and Incorporation: Ingemag
1910-1951
Box: 4 Folder : 6 Capitalization and Incorporation: "New" Dehomag
1910-1951
Box: 4 Folder : 7 Capitalization and Incorporation: "Old" Dehomag
1910-1951
Box: 4 Folder : 8 Capitalization and Incorporation: Optima
1910-1951
Box: 4 Folder : 9 Correspondence: Heidinger, et al, Shareholdings
1940-1955
Box: 4 Folder : 10 Correspondence and Phone Conversations: Chauncey, Heidinger Share Transfer

IBM European Business Archive

The IBM European Business Archive is arranged alphabetically within three series, as the collection appeared when it arrived at Fales. New arrangement schemes have only been imposed when large files contained tabbed subfolders, when a volume or pamphlet required its own folder, or when delicate or oversized material demanded separation from the original order.

SERIES I is composed of European Office Records, grouped alphabetically by subject headings. The bulk of this series is devoted to financial correspondence between the IBM office in New York and IBM subsidiaries in Germany, including Degemag, Dehomag and Optima.

SERIES II is composed of Legal Records containing documentary evidence of transactions between IBM and its subsidiaries, including telephone transcripts, telegrams and letters.

SERIES III comprises business ledgers from IBM Germany: Degemag, Dehomag and Optima.

1940-1941
Box: 4 Folder : 11 Correspondence Related to Shareholdings
1922-1957
Box: 5 Folder : 1 Dividend Policy (Willy Heidinger): Correspondence
1914-1938
Box: 5 Folder : 2 Financial Statements, Reports and Correspondence: Dehomag (1 of 3)
1940-1948
Box: 5 Folder : 3 Financial Statements, Reports and Correspondence: Dehomag (2 of 3)
1940-1948
Box: 5 Folder : 4 Financial Statements, Reports and Correspondence: Dehomag (3 of 3)
1914-1939
Box: 5 Folder : 5 Incorporation: Bylaws and Charter: Degemag
1939
Box: 5 Folder : 6 Incorporation: Bylaws and Charter: Gesellschaft fur Geschaftsmaschinen
1910-1958
Box: 5 Folder : 7 Incorporation: Bylaws and Charter: Gesellschaft fur Geschaftsmaschinen - Bundesgesetzblatt
1910-1958
Box: 5 Folder : 8 Incorporation: Bylaws and Charter: Ingemag
1910-1959
Box: 5 Folder : 9 Incorporation: Bylaws and Charter: "New" Dehomag
1910-1958
Box: 5 Folder : 10 Incorporation: Bylaws and Charter: "Old" Dehomag
1910-1959
Box: 5 Folder : 11 Incorporation: Bylaws and Charter: Optima
1910-1959
Box: 5 Folder : 12 Incorporation: Correspondence Re: Mergers
1932-1938
Box: 5 Folder : 13 Incorporation: Documents Related to Corporate Name Change
1934-1960
Box: 6 Folder : 1 Incorporation: General Correspondence
1934-1960
Box: 6 Folder : 2 Incorporation: Merger Documents (English Translation)
1910-1941
Box: 6 Folder : 3 Incorporation: Merger Documents (German Text)
1910-1941
Box: 6 Folder : 4 Loan Agreement, Miscellaneous Documents (Karl Hummel, Willy Heidinger, Hermann Rottke)
1937-1953
Box: 6 Folder : 5 Machines: Customer Engineering Service, U.S. Military Installations
1946-1950
Box: 6 Folder : 6 Machines: "Der Rechenlocher Type II" Publication
c. 1945
Box: 6 Folder : 7 Machines, Manufacturing and Shipping: Documents and Correspondence
1935-1950
Box: 6 Folder : 8 Minutes of the Regular Shareholders' Meetings
1934-1960
Box: 7 Folder : 1 Miscellaneous Correspondence
1941-1968
Box: 7 Folder : 2 Miscellaneous Documents, Reports on Business Travel: (Harrison K. Chauncey)
1940-1948
Box: 7 Folder : 3 Price Lists and Related Correspondence (1 of 2)
1938-1948
Box: 7 Folder : 4 Price Lists and Related Correspondence (2 of 2)
Box: 7 Folder : 5 Rental Machines: Documents and Correspondence
1935-1950
Box: 7 Folder : 6 Rottke, Hermann: Loan Agreement
1937-1953
Box: 7 Folder : 7 Share Transfer Drafts: Heidinger, et al.
1937-1953
Box: 7 Folder : 8 Shareholdings: Documentary Evidence (Exhibits 1-7)
1922-1958
Box: 7 Folder : 9 Shareholdings: Documentary Evidence (Exhibits 8-16)
1922-1958
Box: 8 Folder : 1 Shareholdings: Documentary Evidence: "Gesellschaft fur Elektrische Unternehmungen Aktiengesellschaft" Annual Report
1939
Box: 8 Folder : 2 Shareholdings: Documentary Evidence: Unexecuted Affidavit
1948
Box: 8 Folder : 3 Shareholdings: Documentary Evidence, Correspondence
1940-1941
Box: 8 Folder : 4 Taxes and Related Correspondence
1932-1967
Box: 8 Folder : 5 Trademark Agreement: Electromatic Typewriters and Mercedes Euromaschinen-Werke Aktiengesellschaft
1935
Box: 8 Folder : 6 Trademarks and Copyrights
1914-1958

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Series III: Ledgers

Scope and Content note

SERIES III: Ledgers comprises business ledgers from IBM Germany: Degemag, Dehomag and Optima. Due to the deterioration of the bindings of the ledgers, their pages have been removed and housed in folders.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 9 Folder : 1 Degemag 1933
1933
Box: 9 Folder : 2 Degemag 1934
1934
Box: 9 Folder : 3 Germany Degemag 1935
1935
Box: 9 Folder : 4 Germany Degemag 1936
1936
Box: 10 Folder : 1 Degemag 1937
1937
Box: 10 Folder : 2 Degemag 1938
1938
Box: 10 Folder : 3 Dehomag 1933
1933
Box: 10 Folder : 4 Dehomag 1934
1934
Box: 11 Folder : 1 Germany Dehomag 1935
1935
Box: 11 Folder : 2 Germany Dehomag 1936
1936
Box: 11 Folder : 3 Dehomag 1937
1937
Box: 11 Folder : 4 Dehomag 1938
1938
Box: 12 Folder : 1 Optima 1933
1933
Box: 12 Folder : 2 Optima 1934
1934
Box: 12 Folder : 3 Germany Optima 1935
1935
Box: 13 Folder : 1 Germany Optima 1936
1936
Box: 13 Folder : 2 Optima 1937
1937
Box: 13 Folder : 3 Optima 1938
1938

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Oversize - Series I: European Office Records

Scope and Content note

The Oversize series consists of a small number of documents that had originally been folded and stored in legal-sized folders.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 14 Folder : 1 Incorporation: Bylaws and Charter: Ingemag District Court in Charlottenburg, Certified Copy from the Commercial Register
1934
Box: 14 Folder : 2 Physical Inventory of Electric Bookkeeping and Accounting Machines
1940
Box: 14 Folder : 3 Statements of Assets and Liabilities at December 31, 1949
1949
Box: 14 Folder : 4 Statement of Unfilled Stock Orders
1934

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