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Guide to the Records of the 1948 Election Voting Study in Elmira, New York
1939-1972 (bulk 1948-1954)
 MS 196

New-York Historical Society
170 Central Park West
New York, NY 10024
Phone: (212) 873-3400

© 2011 New-York Historical Society

Collection processed by Jiyang Chun

This finding aid was produced using the Archivists' Toolkit on May 19, 2017
English using Describing Archives: A Content Standard

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Berelson, Bernard, 1912-1979
Title: Records of the 1948 election voting study in Elmira, New York
Dates: 1939-1972 (bulk 1948-1954)
Abstract: The records of the 1948 election voting study in Elmira, New York, include the documentation underlying the book Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign, co-authored by Bernard R. Berelson, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and William N. McPhee. In this study, the authors sought to analyze how citizens made up their minds as to how to vote. The study centered on the 1948 U.S. presidential contest between Harry S. Truman and Thomas E. Dewey, using the “normal community” of Elmira, New York, as the test site. The records include the completed questionnaires administered to over 1,000 participants at four points in time during and after the election campaign, study administration files, analyses, background reference materials, local newspapers and other periodicals from Elmira, and phonograph recordings of topical radio broadcasts, especially those of Fulton Lewis, Jr. and of  Meet the Press.
Quantity: 14.88 Linear feet  in 14 record cartons, one document box, and 67 phonograph records
Call Phrase: MS 196

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Biographical/Historical Note

The records of the 1948 election voting study in Elmira, New York, include the documentation underlying the book Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign, co-authored by Bernard R. Berelson, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and William N. McPhee. The authors positioned their study as one of a series conducted by various scholars in the context of different elections from 1940 to 1952. Their overall aim was to attain a “better understanding of the processes of democratic elections,” particularly in terms of how citizens make up their minds as to how to vote (  Voting, vii). The 1948 presidential election pitted the Democratic Party candidate and incumbent U.S. President Harry S. Truman against the Republican Party nominee and New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. But the primary and general campaigns were also notable for the range of other viable candidates or potential candidates from across the political spectrum, from Henry A. Wallace on the left to Strom Thurmond on the right. Further, this was the first presidential election since the end of World War II, at a time of great changes domestically and internationally, and the first since the early 1930s without Franklin D. Roosevelt at the head of the Democratic ticket. Throughout the election season, Truman was viewed as such a vulnerable candidate that the mass media conveyed the expectation that Dewey would defeat him, yet Truman won, elected by 2.5 million votes. It was in this volatile political environment that Bernard Berelson and his team launched their study of voters and voting.

Berelson acquired his Ph.D. in 1941 from the Graduate Library School at the University of Chicago. His thesis focused on the mass media’s effect on the formation of public political opinion. In 1944, he joined the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia University, where its founder, Paul Lazarsfeld, was also interested in the power of mass media and its influence on public opinion. In 1944, Lazarsfeld and Berelson’s work The People’s Choice was published, a study of the 1940 election, using Erie County, Ohio, as the site of analysis. Berelson returned to Chicago in 1946, but kept in contact with Lazarsfeld, eventually planning a study of the upcoming 1948 election.

Berelson and Lazarsfeld chose Elmira (including the surrounding unincorporated towns) as the site of their 1948 study because it represented a “normal” community from which generalizations might be drawn. Specifically, Elmira was of moderate population size; independent but not isolated from any metropolitan district; socially and economically stable; had good media exposure with a typical educational and cultural environment; had a balanced labor and industrial situation; was politically competitive; and had a typical ethnic composition. They divided a map of Elmira into 816 segments, numbering them in a serpentine fashion, and selected every third segment, yielding 271 segments to visit. Within the segments, all households (about 6,000) were noted with the final sample of 1,267 households chosen from those. Interviews were then attempted, with a final sample size of respondents totaling 1,029.

Berelson and Lazarsfeld decided to employ the so-called “panel method” in Elmira by which the same individuals were interviewed at multiple points over time in order to assess the dynamics of their decision making process. Accordingly, the study team implemented four “waves” of questionnaires in 1948: in June, before the party nominees were decided at the July conventions; in August, after the conventions and before the campaigns’ fall push; in October, as the election drew near; and in November, right after the election. (The collection also holds questionnaires from 1950, but Voting does not seem to refer to these and it is unclear what their relationship to the initial study is.) Not all members of the panel participated in all four waves for various reasons, but 746 (72%) did. 907 (88%) participated in three of the four waves. Only 43 (4%) participated in June and then dropped out.

Subsequent to the fieldwork, William N. McPhee, who was a sociologist and invented a computer simulation model for voting, joined the Elmira study team. McPhee used a computer to help analyze the results of the survey and he wrote several chapters of Voting, which was published in 1954, six years after the election.

(The principal sources for this note were Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign, documents in the collection and Wikipedia.)

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Scope and Contents Note

The records of the 1948 election voting study in Elmira, New York, include the project documents compiled, most likely, by Bernard R. Berelson, and that underlie the publication Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign. These documents include the project’s files concerning administration, planning, funding, methodology, field interviewer instructions, data coding, and analysis. The collection includes an extensive number, perhaps all, of the completed questionnaires and interviews from the study. These include the four “waves” of questionnaires implemented in 1948 and discussed in  Voting, probing voter attitudes toward the Presidential candidates, their perspective on key national and international issues, and influences on their voting choice. There are also two additional sets of questionnaires from 1950 that relate, although in an unclear manner, to the Elmira study. The collection also includes examples of mass media with potential influence on voting behavior in Elmira, especially local newspapers and other periodicals and recordings of radio broadcasts over local station WENY. Most of these recordings are of the syndicated national program of conservative newscaster, Fulton Lewis, Jr.

Arrangement Note

The collection is organized in three series:

Series I. General Project Documents, 1948- 1972 (bulk, 1948-1954)

Series II. Questionnaires, 1948-1950

Series III: Reference Materials, 1947-1948

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Access Points

Subject Names

  • Dewey, Thomas E., (Thomas Edmund), 1902-1971
  • Truman, Harry S., 1884-1972

Document Type

  • Correspondence
  • Maps
  • Memorandums
  • Newspapers
  • Questionnaires
  • Research (documents)

Subject Organizations

  • Columbia University. Bureau of Applied Social Research.

Subject Topics

  • Elections -- United States -- Case studies
  • Presidents -- United States -- Election -- 1948
  • Radio addresses, debates, etc.
  • Sound recordings
  • Voting -- United States
  • Voting research

Subject Places

  • Elmira (N.Y.)

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Administrative Information

Access Restrictions

Open to qualified researchers.

Use Restrictions

This collection is owned by the New-York Historical Society. The copyright law of the United States governs the making of photocopies and protects unpublished materials as well as published.

The collection includes several phonograph records. These are restricted from use because of their fragility and because N-YHS does not have the playback equipment.

Preferred Citation Note

This record group should be cited as Records of the 1948 Election Study in Elmira, New York, MS 196, The New-York Historical Society.

Related Archival Materials Note

Columbia University Libraries holds the Bureau of Applied Social Research Records, 1944-1976. These records include several files concerning the 1948 Elmira study. These can be found at:

Series I (Project Index), at http://findingaids.cul.columbia.edu/ead/nnc-rb/ldpd_5012632/dsc/1/

and Series III (Reports), at http://findingaids.cul.columbia.edu/ead/nnc-rb/ldpd_5012632/dsc/3/

Immediate Source of Acquisition Note

The source of the collection is somewhat uncertain, but appears to have been donated in December 1972 by Columbia University's Bureau of Applied Social Research.

Processing Information Note

The collection was processed in 2017 by archival intern Jiyang Chun.

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Container List

Series I. General Project Documents, 1939-1972 (bulk 1948-1954). 5.0 Linear feet

Arrangement Note

In 2017, in large part the project files were found in no particular order by the processing archivist. Accordingly, the arrangement of the series was established by the archivist. The series is divided into eight groups: administrative documents, questionnaire drafts, survey documents, code books, analysis documents, book drafts, reference documents, and miscellaneous. Each group is arranged in chronological order. Most folder labels were transcribed from the original folder. For loose or unlabeled documents, the processing archivist assigned a label; these are indicated in [brackets].

Scope and Contents Note

The series includes seven types of documents related to the Elmira study: administrative documents, questionnaire drafts, survey documents, code books, analysis of the data collected in the surveys, book drafts, and reference documents. The administrative documents include memos, correspondence, and minutes concerning the planning of the 1948 election study, communication with other scholars to develop study details, progress reports, and letters to companies and research organizations to gather support. The series includes early drafts of each wave of the questionnaires, indicating their relationship to the study plan; survey documents, including maps of Elmira, record of interviews, and survey instructions for the field team; code books and related instructions for analyzing the outcome of the survey by using computers; the analysis of the data and survey outcomes, including memos and calculations; and drafts of each chapter of Voting, dust jackets, and the final version of the book. The series also includes the academic reference materials bearing on the Elmira study, including other scholars’ analyses of the effects of mass media during presidential campaigns and the formation of public opinion in the late 1930s to early 1940s.

The series also includes a group of miscellaneous documents that are unrelated or indirectly related to the Elmira project. These documents include Bernard Berelson's diplomas and individual correspondence with the University of Chicago; radio studies in Italy, Greece, and Turkey; a health survey from Columbus, Ohio; and a student survey in 1965.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: - Folder : - Administrative Documents
Box: 1 Folder : 1 Lazarsfield Memo on Politics
Box: 1 Folder : 2-4 Documents & Intro & First Wave (3 folders)
1947-1948 August
Box: 1 Folder : 5-6 General (2 folders)
1948 April-June
Box: 1 Folder : 7 Publicity Releases
1948 April-October
Box: 1 Folder : 8 Rand Corporation B.B [Bernard Berelson]
1947 August-1951 May
Box: 1 Folder : 9-10 AAPOR [American Association for Public Opinion Research] Research Development and Committee (2 folders)
1948 May-1951 April
Box: 1 Folder : 11 Correspondence Preceding & During the Campaign
1948 May-November
Box: 1 Folder : 12-14 Correspondence [Bernard Berelson] (3 folders)
1948 January-1951 May
Box: 1 Folder : 15 Elmira [Memorandums and Questionnaire drafts]
1948 May
Box: 1 Folder : 16 Progress Report [Bernard Berelson]
1948 August
Box: 1 Folder : 17 Elmira-Current [Memorandums]
1948 November-December
Box: 1 Folder : 18 Cornell Inventory
1948 December 31
Box: 1 Folder : 19 [Minutes of Meeting]
1949 March 14
Box: 1 Folder : 20 [Course] #492 Communication & Public Opinion
1949 March-May
Box: 1 Folder : 21 Project- Correspondence with Cornell
1949 November-1950 May
Box: 1 Folder : 22 Change- Chapter Notes
Box: 1 Folder : 23 Correspondence re: Analysis
1950 October-1953 December
Box: 1 Folder : 24 David Gleicer
1950 May-1951 January
Box: 1 Folder : 25 Organization F: Democratic Theory
1951 June 28
Box: 1 Folder : 26 [Elmo Roper Joins NBC During 1952 Election]
1952 January 10
Box: 1 Folder : 27 Handbook for Politics: McPhee's Memo to Lipset
Circa. 1952
Box: 1 Folder : 28 Correspondence [to Universities]
1953 March-April
Box: - Folder : - Questionnaire Drafts
Box: 1 Folder : 29-30 Correspondence and Memos re: Study & Questionnaire Construction (2 folders)
1948 May-1950 June
Box: 1 Folder : 31-32 Wave I Questionnaires from 1st to Final Draft (2 folders)
1948 June
Box: 1 Folder : 33 Wave I Blank Callback Sheets and Questionnaires
1948 June
Box: 1 Folder : 34 Wave II Questionnaire from 1st to the Final Draft
1948 July
Box: 1 Folder : 35 Wave II Pre-test Draft
1948 August
Box: 1 Folder : 36 [Wave II Blank Second Questionnaires]
1948 August
Box: 1 Folder : 37 Wave III Questionnaires
1948 September
Box: 1 Folder : 38 Wave III
1948 September
Box: 1 Folder : 39 Wave III Questionnaires from the First to the Final Draft
1948 September-October
Box: 2 Folder : 1 Wave IV Questionnaires
1948 November
Box: 2 Folder : 2 Post-Election Questionnaires - Not Used
1948 November
Box: 2 Folder : 3 Wave IV Blank Questionnaires
1948 November
Box: 2 Folder : 4 1950 Elmira Follow-up Study
1950 April-July
Box: - Folder : - Survey Documents
Box: 2 Folder : 5 Maps of Elmira (1 of 2 folders)

Scope and Contents Note

These folders include the maps showing the segments that the study team divided Elmira and the surrounding communities into for purposes of establishing the interview sample.

Circa 1948
Oversize: small Maps of Elmira (2 of 2 folders). Oversize
Box: 2 Folder : 6 Listing Instructions
1948 May 14
Box: 2 Folder : 7 Selection of Respondent
1948 June
Box: 2 Folder : 8 Sample: Townships & Wards
1948 June-August
Box: 2 Folder : 9-10 Instructions for Interviewers (2 folders)
1948 June-September
Box: 2 Folder : 11-16 Listing Sheets: Segments 1-300 (6 folders)
1948 May
Box: 2 Folder : 17-18 [Selected Series of Questionnaires] (2 folders)
1948 June-November
Box: 2 Folder : 19 Interviewer Comments. Wave I
1948 June
Box: 2 Folder : 20 Background & Intensive Interviews
1948 July
Box: 2 Folder : 21 Elmira Intensive Interviews: Communications
1948 August
Box: 2 Folder : 22 Interviews 2a
1948 August
Box: 2 Folder : 23 Intensive Interviews: Inter-Group Relations - Ethnic, Religious, Racial
1948 June-September
Box: 2 Folder : 24 Intensive Interviews: Union Leaders
1948 June- August
Box: 2 Folder : 25 [Letters to Respondents, Returned by Post Office]
1948 November
Box: 2 Folder : 26 ["Safari to Elmira"]
Box: - Folder : - Code Books
Box: 2 Folder : 27-31 Code Books (5 folders)
Circa 1948
Box: 2 Folder : 32 Coding Copies of Code Books
Circa 1948
Box: 2 Folder : 33 Coding Instructions and Interview Guides
1948 June-September
Box: 2 Folder : 34 Editing & Coding Instruction. Memos re: Coding
1948 June-1950 March
Box: - Folder : - Analysis Documents
Box: 3 Folder : 1 History of Democratic Party
1948 June
Box: 3 Folder : 2-3 [Pre-1948 Election Survey and Analysis] (2 folders)
1948 July
Box: 3 Folder : 4 [Documents Sent to Bernard Berelson]
1948 October
Box: 3 Folder : 5-7 [Newspaper Clippings and Radio Speeches] (3 folders)
1948 October
Box: 3 Folder : 8 [Newspaper Clippings on the Election]
1948 October
Box: 3 Folder : 9 Organizations Classified by Major Functions
Circa 1948 June
Box: 3 Folder : 10 [Memos and Survey Analysis]
1948 November-1949
Box: 3 Folder : 11 Actual Vote Records
1948 December-1949 January
Box: 3 Folder : 12 Trend [Respondent Type and Effects of Mortality Analysis]
Circa 1949
Box: 3 Folder : 13 Gilliam Long-term Change Memos
Circa 1949
Box: 3 Folder : 14 McCarthy: Sampling Procedure in Elmira
1949 October 27
Box: 3 Folder : 15 Thielens [Preliminary Report on the Elmira Mortality]
Circa 1950
Box: 3 Folder : 16 Factors Analysis Study
Circa 1950
Box: 3 Folder : 17-18 [Memos, Correspondence & Analysis] (2 folders)
1950 March-November
Box: 3 Folder : 19 Various Memos Re: Analysis
Circa 1951
Box: 3 Folder : 20 Interest in Election
1951 April
Box: 3 Folder : 21 Suggetions For Analysis: Mostly PFL (Lazarsfield) at Various Times
Circa 1951
Box: 3 Folder : 22-23 Content Analysis (2 folders)
Circa 1951-1952
Box: 3 Folder : 24-25 CMTN [Communication] & Discussion: Used (2 folders)
Circa 1952
Box: 3 Folder : 26-29 Materials Used in Perception Section (4 folders)
Circa 1952
Box: 3 Folder : 30 Robbie Rule Model
1953 April
Box: 3 Folder : 31 Material from Cornell & Ecological Data
1953 October 2
Box: - Folder : - Book Drafts
Box: 3 Folder : 32 Organization of Book
1950 August 22
Box: 3 Folder : 33 Grounds for Decision Chapter
1950 November
Box: 3 Folder : 34-35 Perception Chapter (2 folders)
1950 December
Box: 3 Folder : 36-37 Early Chapter Drafts (2 folders)
1950 December-1951 March
Box: 3 Folder : 38-39 Manuscript. Communication & Discussion Section (2 folders)
1951 February
Box: 4 Folder : 1 Dean: Unions in Elmira
Circa 1952
Box: 4 Folder : 2 Early Draft of Group Chapter
Circa 1952
Box: 4 Folder : 3 Kaplan Draft: Group Homogeneity
Circa 1952
Box: 4 Folder : 4 John Dean: Outline Role of Party
Circa 1952
Box: 4 Folder : 5 Early Draft of Chapter 7 (New Chapter 7)
Circa 1952
Box: 4 Folder : 6 J. Dean: Political Parties-Draft
1952 June
Box: 4 Folder : 7 New Dean Chapter on Parties
1952 June
Box: 4 Folder : 8 Notes, Memos, Etc. Re: Group Chapter
Box: 4 Folder : 9-10 Early Drafts of Issue Chapter (2 folders)
Circa 1953
Box: 4 Folder : 11 Early Draft of Chapter 9
1953 July
Box: 4 Folder : 12-13 Notes, Papers, Memos Re: Issue Chapter (2 folders)
1952 January-1953 October
Box: 4 Folder : 14 [Early Draft of The People's Second Choice]
Box: 4 Folder : 15 1953 December Draft
1953 December
Box: 4 Folder : 16 [Dust Jackets of Voting]
Box: - Folder : - Reference Documents
Box: 4 Folder : 17 [An Index of the Papers in Elmira Box 6]
Post 1954
Box: 4 Folder : 18-19 Book I (2 folders) [Binder Content]
1950 January-June
Box: 4 Folder : 20-21 Book II (2 folders) [Binder Content]
1949 May-1950 June
Box: 4 Folder : 22-23 Box III (2 folders) [Binder Content]
1949 May- 1950 July
Box: 4 Folder : 24-25 Book IV (2 folders) [Binder Content]
1950 July
Box: 4 Folder : 26 Time of Final Decision, Scott Hunter
Circa 1948
Box: 4 Folder : 27 Anonymous, Communication Analysis
1948 December
Box: 4 Folder : 28 Anonymous, Paper on Local vs. National Elections
Circa 1949
Box: 4 Folder : 29 Birnbaum, The Feeling of Influence
1950 August
Box: 4 Folder : 30 Crosetti,The Process of Short-Term Change
Circa 1950
Box: 4 Folder : 31 Baxter, Crosstabulation of Interpersonal Influence Questions
Circa 1949
Box: 5 Folder : 1 Dinerman, 1948 Votes in the Making
1948 December, 1972
Box: 5 Folder : 2 David Gold Paper
Circa 1950
Box: 5 Folder : 3 Gray, Class Structure and Vote in Elmira
Circa 1949
Box: 5 Folder : 4-5 B. Hockey Papers (2 folders)
1950 February
Box: 5 Folder : 6 Index of Political Predisposition
Circa 1950
Box: 5 Folder : 7 Kaplan, Sandusky Replication
Circa 1950
Box: 5 Folder : 8 Awareness of Political Conflict
Circa 1949
Box: 5 Folder : 9 McPhee: A Dysfunctional Analysis
Circa 1953
Box: 5 Folder : 10 H.Senft, Changers Communication
1950 February
Box: 5 Folder : 11 "Certain Hypotheses with Regard to Movies and Radio"
1939 September
Box: 5 Folder : 12 [Studies on Film]
1939 September-1945 May
Box: 5 Folder : 13 "Public Communications and Public Opinions"
1941 April
Box: 5 Folder : 14 "Analyzing the Content of Mass Communication"
1942 September
Box: 5 Folder : 15 "Effect of Chicago Sun on War Attitudes"
Circa 1944
Box: 5 Folder : 16 [Memo on Magazine Study]
Box: 5 Folder : 17 [Documents on Radio Analysis]
Circa 1946
Box: 5 Folder : 18 Reports on Chicago Material
Circa 1946
Box: 5 Folder : 19 [Effect of Mass Media Analysis]
1946 September
Box: 5 Folder : 20 "To What Extent Are Newspaper Columnists Read?"
1947 March
Box: 5 Folder : 21 Memo on General Problem and Related Content Analysis
Box: 5 Folder : 22 Audience Analysis
Circa 1947
Box: 5 Folder : 23 [Studies on Communications Control]
Circa 1947
Box: 5 Folder : 24 The University of Chicago Magazine
1949 January
Box: 5 Folder : 25 "An Analysis of the 1948 Presidential Pre-Election Polls"
1949 August
Box: 5 Folder : 26 N.Y State Business Facts Elmira Area: 1954 Supplement
Box: - Folder : - Miscellaneous
Box: 5 Folder : 27 [Degrees of Bernard Berelson]

Scope and Contents Note

Includes Berelson's B.A. and Ph.D. Also includes a contract concerning the publication of What Reading Does to People.

1936, 1941
Box: 5 Folder : 28 Correspondence-Chicago
1944 October- 1946 April
Box: 5 Folder : 29-30 [Analysis of Radio in Turkey] (2 folders)
1949 June- November
Box: 5 Folder : 31 [Analysis of Radio in Italy]
1949 September
Box: 5 Folder : 32 [Analysis of Radio in Greece]
1949 September
Box: 5 Folder : 33 Reports on Turkey and Greece
1949 October- 1950 January
Box: 5 Folder : 34-35 [Columbus Community Survey-Health] (2 folders)
Circa 1948
Box: 5 Folder : 36 [Students' Questionnaire]

Scope and Contents Note

Includes one survey of a 10th grade student from Madison High School in New Jersey concerning public high school education.

1965 April

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Series II. Questionnaires, 1948-1950. 8.0 Linear feet

Arrangement Note

The series is arranged with the 1948 questionnaires followed by the 1950 questionnaires. The 1948 questionnaires are arranged in numerical order, based on the segment number written on each questionnaire. All four waves of the 1948 questionnaire are found together. Each of the two waves of the 1950 questionnaires are arranged separately, each wave also in segment number order.

Scope and Contents Note

The series contains the completed questionnaires used in the Elmira study (although it is not known if every single completed questionnaire remains in the collection). Four “waves” of questionnaires, following the so-called “panel method” of repeated interviews, are found in the series. Three of these waves date from before the 1948 election (June, August and October) and a fourth from just after the election in November. Two waves of questionnaires from 1950 (April and July) are also in the series, although the relation of these to the study is unclear as they are not mentioned in the published results.

The questionnaires, especially the three pre-election surveys, touched on an extensive array of matters, including the interviewee’s attitude toward the various candidates in the primary and general campaigns, their intentions to vote one way or the other, the influences on their choices, and their views on key issues (notably Russia, labor and management relations, the growth of corporations and government regulation of industry, the Israeli-Arab conflict, and the United Nations). The questionnaires also include demographic information, including organizations that the interviewee associated with and the resulting political influences. In addition to the checked-off answers and brief notations on the questionnaires, there are also some longer form answers to interview questions. (Reproductions of the questionnaire forms can be found in an appendix in Bernard Berelson, et al.’s Voting.)

In order to link the questionnaires to particular respondents and to each other, each questionnaire was given a unique code that was formed by reference to the wave, segment, and household interviewed. For example, the questionnaire numbered as 001-145-004 indicates that it was the first wave questionnaire, implemented in the 145th segment of Elmira, given to the fourth household/interviewee from that segment. Questionnaire 002-145-004 would be the second wave given to the same household. (A map showing the segment numbers and location can be found in Series I, in the folders “Maps of Elmira.”)

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 5 Folder : 37-38 Questionnaires (2 folders)

Scope and Contents Note

Includes questionnaires that appear to be outside the principal ones used in the survey. These are from Elmira and other locales, and might be test surveys.

Box: 6 Folder : 1-10 Questionnaires. Segments 000-040 (10 folders)
Box: 7 Folder : 1-14 Questionnaires. Segments 041-079 (14 folders)
Box: 8 Folder : 1-13 Questionnaires. Segments 081-118 (13 folders)
Box: 9 Folder : 1-14 Questionnaires. Segments 119-159 (14 folders)
Box: 10 Folder : 1-10 Questionnaires. Segments 160-222 (14 folders)
Box: 11 Folder : 1-12 Questionnaires. Segments 223-257 (12 folders)
Box: 12 Folder : 1-7 Questionnaires. Segments 258-271 (7 folders)
Box: 12 Folder : 8 Blank Questionnaires
1948 October
Box: 12 Folder : 9-12 1950 Opinion Survey. Segments 1-118 (4 folders)
1950 April
Box: 13 Folder : 1-4 1950 Opinion Survey. Segments 120-271 (4 folders)
1950 April
Box: 13 Folder : 5-9 1950 Final Questionnaire. Segments 1-271 (5 folders)
1950 July
Box: 13 Folder : 10 1950 Final Questionnaire. Late Returned Questionnaires, and Letters.
1950 August-December

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Series III. Reference Materials, 1947-1948. 1.88 Linear feet in one record carton, one document box, and 67 phonograph records

Scope and Contents Note

The Reference Materials series includes mass media available in Elmira during the 1948 election campaign that may have had an influence on the voters. These included both print media and radio broadcasts from local station WENY, as recorded on phonograph records. The print media included local newspapers, corporate newsletters, and periodicals aimed at labor and other interest groups. The recordings are primarily of Fulton Lewis, Jr., the nationally-syndicated conservative broadcaster.

Arrangement Note

The series is organized in two subseries:

Subseries III.A. Print Matter

Subseries III.B. Phonograph Records

Processing Information Note

Volunteer Carol Reisner did the rehousing and labeling of the material in this series.

Subseries III.A. Print Matter, 1947 December-1948 December. 1.21 Linear feet

Arrangement Note

All the newspapers and periodicals are arranged by title

Scope and Contents Note

The subseries includes newspapers and other periodicals that circulated in at least some quarters in Elmira during the 1948 election campaign. These included newspapers aimed at the general public, such as the weekly Chemung Valley Reporter, and periodicals intended for particular audiences, especially those with labor, corporate, and religious affiliations. The container list below includes the specific titles.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 14 Folder : 1-2 Chemung Valley Reporter (2 folders)
1948 May-November
Box: 14 Folder : 3 CIO News
1948 July-November
Box: 14 Folder : 4 Chemung County Farm & Home Bureau & 4H Club News
1948 June-November
Box: 14 Folder : 5 Democratic Digest, The Electronic Workers' Journal, Ford Facts, Elmira Labor Reviews
1948 January-November
Box: 14 Folder : 6 Independent Women, International Fire Fighter, International Teamster, The Journeyman Barber
1948 May-October
Box: 14 Folder : 7 Labor, The Laborer
1948 June-November
Box: 14 Folder : 8 The Machinist, Machinist Monthly Journal
1948 June-November
Box: 14 Folder : 9 The Modern Woodman, Moore News, Office Reporter, Office Worker, NYS Federation of Labor
1947 December-1948 October
Box: 14 Folder : 10 Railway Carmen's Journal, The Railway Conductor
1948 May-December
Box: 14 Folder : 11 The Typographical Journal
1948 August-December
Box: 14 Folder : 12 Union News Service, The Union Postal Clerk, United Automobile Workers
1948 June-November
Box: 14 Folder : 13 The Catholic Courier,The Carpenter
1948 September-December
Box: 15 Folder : 1 Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen Magazine
1948 May-December
Box: 15 Folder : 2 Bendix Council News, Bendix Eclipse News, Blazes, The Bridge News Magazine
1948 May-December
Box: 15 Folder : 3 American Federationist, American Flint
1948 July-November

Subseries III.B. Phonograph Records, 1948 June-November. 0.67 Linear feet

Scope and Contents Note

The subseries includes 67 recordings of radio broadcasts from Elmira station WENY. The bulk includes 50 records of Fulton Lewis, Jr.’s show (or his substitute during the summer of 1948, Kenneth G. Crawford). There are also 16 recordings of "Meet the Press" and one record with two spots, sponsored by the Progressive Party and by the Republican Party. Many of the record labels are stamped as “used,” perhaps suggesting those were used in the election study.

Arrangement Note

The subseries is arranged by radio program.

Access Restrictions

The phonograph records are restricted because of their fragility and because N-YHS has no equipment on which to play them.

Container 1     Title Date
Disk: 1-50 Fulton Lewis, Jr. / Kenneth G. Crawford (50 records)

Scope and Contents Note

Crawford substituted for Lewis from July 19 through August 13.

1948 June 14-November 3
Disk: 51-66 "Meet the Press" (16 records)
1948 June 25-October 15
Disk: 67 "Henry A. Wallace" (Progressive Party Sponsor) / "Political Talk" (Republican Party Sponsor)
1948 October

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