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Guide to the Victor Prevost Photograph Collection
1853-ca. 1943
  PR 56

New-York Historical Society
170 Central Park West
New York, NY 10024
(212) 873-3400


New-York Historical Society

Collection processed by Emily Wolff, Sandra Markham, and Jenny Gotwals

This finding aid was produced using ArchivesSpace on September 10, 2019
Description is in English.

Descriptive Summary

Title: Victor Prevost Photograph Collection
Dates [inclusive]: 1853-ca. 1943
Abstract: The collection consists of 44 calotype negatives and several generations of contact prints. The artfully composed scenes are thought to be among the earliest surviving paper photographic views of New York City. They are prized as fine examples of the calotype process, which was rarely used in the United States. The images portray 23 sites from Battery Place and lower Broadway's commercial buildings to the Crystal Palace exhibition, scattered buildings in upper Manhattan, and churches around East 28th Street, near Prevost's home.

The Victor Prevost Photograph Collection is digitized and available in the  Shelby White and Leon Levy Digital Library.
Quantity: 7.42 Linear feet (5 boxes, plus one flat file folder)
Call Phrase: PR 56

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Biographical Note

Victor Prevost was born in La Rochelle, France in 1802. As a young man, he studied art with Paul Delaroche in Paris. Around 1847, Prevost traveled to California, where he made paintings and drawings of the landscape, creating some of the earliest surviving images of pre-gold rush San Francisco. He moved to New York City in 1850 and continued to make his living as an artist. During this period he began to experiment with photography.

On a visit to France in 1853, Prevost learned Gustave Le Gray's calotype process. Based on the calotype process developed by William Henry Fox Talbot, Le Gray's method employed sensitized waxed paper to make photographic negatives. In France, Prevost produced landscape photos of the Forest of Compiegne, views of the castle of Pierrefonds, and architectural studies of the town of Soissons that demonstrate his mastery of the technique as well as his fine artistic sensibility.

When he returned to New York, Prevost opened a photography studio at 627 Broadway, between Houston and Bleecker Streets, with P. C. Duchochois as his partner. He was one of the few photographers in the United States producing calotypes commercially. Prevost entered his images at the New York Crystal Palace Exhibition in 1853 and was awarded several honorable mentions but lost the prize to John Adams Whipple, who made images using what he called the cystalotype process, collodion on glass. In 1854, several of Prevost's images appeared in Photographic and Fine Art Journal. The accompanying article praised the images and hinted that Prevost had plans to publish them as a book documenting New York City. Although the book never materialized, his methodical recording of particular areas of the city as well as his signing and numbering of his negatives suggest that he did have the intention to produce one.

Unfortunately, Prevost was unable to compete with the successful studios that dominated New York's photographic market during this era and closed his business in 1855. He took a job working for another calotype studio but held it only briefly. In 1857, he turned to teaching art and physics at a private institute for girls, operated by his wife's aunt. He did, however, continue to photograph, as evidenced by surviving images from the 1860s and 70s. Prevost went on to become the principal at Fort Washington French Institute and later at the Tivoli-on-Hudson Institute where he remained until his death in 1881.

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Scope and Content Note

Victor Prevost's calotype negatives survive as rare examples of early paper photographs of New York City. The New-York Historical Society's Prevost Collection includes forty-four original negatives as well as prints made from these negatives, mostly during the twentieth century. The collection has been arranged in three series: Series I. Calotype Negatives; Series II. Contact Prints from Calotype Negatives; and Series III. Prints of Prevost Images in Other Collections.

Series I. Calotype Negatives consists of the original waxed paper negatives made by Victor Prevost. The negatives were found in the attic of a house of one of Prevost's students in 1898. They were given to a local photographer who in turn passed them on to William I. Scandlin (ca. 1855-1927). Scandlin, an editor for photographic journals who was also a photographer, realized the significance of the images. He wrote and lectured on Prevost at the turn of the twentieth century, including one lantern slide talk he gave at the New-York Historical Society in June 1903.. Scandlin's research provides us with much of what we know about Prevost as well as the identification and dates of many of the individual images. Scandlin's captions for the images, in alphabetical order (roughly by proper noun), serve as the basis for the numbering of the negatives (now known as Prevost #1 through #44). Sometime between 1901 and 1906, Samuel V. Hoffmann (1866-1942) bought some of Prevost's negatives (and perhaps Scandlin's prints of those) from Scandlin. In 1906, Hoffman donated the negatives to the New-York Historical Society.

The waxed paper negatives were made using a variation of the calotype process developed by Gustave Le Gray. Several of the negatives were titled, signed and dated by Prevost. The images document significant buildings and scenes in New York City and its environs. Twenty-three views of sites in downtown Manhattan record the area around Battery Place and many of the commercial buildings on Lower Broadway. These images provide a glimpse of the period's architecture and include many legible signs and bills identifying local businesses and other activities. Prevost also photographed the area near his home on East 28th Street, including several views taken from the windows of his house. Scattered buildings in upper Manhattan are documented, including the house of Dr. Valentine Mott on 94th Street and Bloomingdale Road. The collection also contains photographs of the New York Crystal Palace Exhibition (1853-54), primarily of sculpture and machinery on display.

Series II. Contact Prints from Calotype Negatives contains photographs made from Prevost's original negatives. This series is comprised of prints that were once in four separate sets that came from different sources. None of the four sets were complete in having images from every one of the negatives in the collection. In addition, there were duplicates of certain images within each set. The prints are now combined in one set, which is arranged by Prevost image number as assigned by Series I. However, the provenance for any single print can be readily identified based on an accession date or other markings on its verso. The prints are undated, but those given by Samuel Hoffman's family were made prior to his 1906 donation of the negatives to N-YHS; prints made by N-YHS were obviously made after this date.

The first set of sixty archival photographs was donated to the Society on February 2, 1943, by Eugene Hoffman, the son of Samuel V. Hoffman; it is comprised of gelatin silver contact prints probably made around the turn of the twentieth century. It remains unclear whether Hoffmann purchased these prints from Scandlin along with the negatives, or if he had them made after the Prevost negatives were in his possession.

Another set of twelve prints came to the Society on April 21, 1943, as the bequest of Samuel V. Hoffman. These are also gelatin silver prints but are printed on a lightweight paper and are generally of poorer quality than the prints donated by Eugene Hoffman two months earlier.

A third set is thirty-one gelatin silver contact prints that appear to have been made by the New-York Historical Society from the Prevost negatives sometime between their arrival in 1906 and 1917. They were possibly made for the purposes of publication as several of the images were reproduced in the Society's 1917 and 1918 annual reports. Many of these photographs have printed text captions, cut from the pages of the annual reports, pasted on their versos.

The final set of forty-one gelatin silver prints are all identified with numbers on small brown labels affixed to the top left corner of each the prints' versos. These contact prints were made by the Society around 1943, and a set of 8 x 10-inch copy negatives was made from these prints.

Two prints, mounted on board, have been filed separately in an oversized flat file folder. The photographs, Prevost image numbers 25 & 26, are both of Madison Square.

Series III. Prints of Prevost Images in Other Collections consists of prints made from Victor Prevost negatives that are not in the N-YHS collection. These are identified as prints from an original negative in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and are images of Root's Daguerrean Gallery on Broadway in New York; they appear to be made from the same negative with a slight variation in cropping. These prints may have been part of the original 1906 donation from Samuel Hoffman, as accession records refer to "three photographs" that were donated at the same time as the negatives.

This series also contains an exterior shot of the New York Crystal Palace and Latting Observatory, attributed to Victor Prevost or his partner P.C. Duchochois. It is not clear whether a negative of this image is extant. This print was the gift of Charles Scwartz, 2003.

Arrangement

The negatives and prints are arranged in alphabetical order (roughly by proper noun) by their titles.

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Access Points

Document Type

  • Contact prints.
  • Calotypes

Subject Organizations

  • Crystal Palace (New York, N.Y.)

Subject Topics

  • Historic buildings -- New York (State).
  • Commercial buildings -- New York (State) -- New York.
  • Church buildings -- New York (State) -- New York.
  • Streets -- New York (State)

Subject Places

  • Upper West Side (New York, N.Y.)
  • Twenty-eighth street (Manhattan, New York, N.Y.) -- East
  • New York (N.Y.) -- Description and travel
  • Manhattan (New York, N.Y.)
  • Broadway (New York, N.Y.)
  • Battery Park City (New York, N.Y.)

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Administrative Information

Provenance

Forty-four paper negatives and three photographs were given by Samuel V. Hoffman in 1906; sixty photographs were given on February 2, 1943 by Eugene Hoffman; twelve photographs were given on April 21, 1943 as the Bequest of Samuel V. Hoffman; seventy-two prints were made by the New-York Historical Society. Additional prints from the above sources were discovered and added to the collection in December 2007.

Access Restrictions

Open to qualified researchers.

Photocopying undertaken by staff only. Limited to twenty exposures of stable, unbound material per day. See guidelines in Print Room for details.

Use Restrictions

Permission to reproduce any Print Room holdings through publication must be obtained from:
Rights and Reproductions
The New-York Historical Society
170 Central Park West
New York, NY 10024
Phone: (212) 873-3400 ext. 270
Fax: (212) 579-8794

Preferred Citation

This collection should be cited as This collection should be cited as: Victor Prevost Photograph Collection, PR 056, Department of Prints, Photographs, and Architectural Collections; The New-York Historical Society.

Related Material

The following institutions hold other work of Victor Prevost: Avery Architectural and Fine Art Library, Corcoran Gallery of Art, George Eastman House, Hallmark Photographic Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of the City of New York, National Museum of American History, and New York Public Library.

 

General note

Sources

Missing Title

  1. Duncan, R. Bruce. "I, Victor Prevost" Graphic Antiquarian 4 (Oct. 1976): 5-11.
  2. Jammes & Janis. Art of the French Calotype, 1983.
  3. Scandlin, W. I. " Victor Prevost. Photographer, Artists, Chemist, a New Chapter in the early History of Photography in this Country." Photo Era (Oct. 1901): 126-131.

Existence and Location of Copies

Digital copies are available in the Shelby White and Leon Levy Digital Library.

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Container List

Series I: Original Negatives

Scope and Contents note

The negatives are arranged in alphabetical order by title assigned by Scandlin. Folder numbers also serve as Prevost image numbers. Negative size and inscription follow titles.

Existence and Location of Copies

Digital copies are available in the Shelby White and Leon Levy Digital Library.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 1 Folder : 1 All Soul's Unitarian Church, 20th St. & 4th Avenue, showing foundation laid for spire

General note

10 1/4 x 13 inches; inscribed LL: VP 1856

1856
Box: 1 Folder : 2 D. Appleton & Co., formerly N.Y. Library Building, Broadway between Leonard Street & Catharine Lane [200 Broadway]

General note

13 x 10 inches; inscribed LL: Broadway East No 1/V Prevost 1854

1854
Box: 1 Folder : 3 Battery Place, looking North

General note

9 x 12 1/2 inches

[1854]
Box: 1 Folder : 4 Charles Beck's Store, Broadway & Ninth Street, view of building showing part of Grace Church

General note

10 1/4 x 13 1/2 inches

undated
Box: 1 Folder : 5 Charles Beck's Store, Broadway & Ninth Street, view of building

General note

13 1/2 x 10 inches

undated
Box: 1 Folder : 6 Bixby's Hotel, Northwest corner of Broadway & Park Place, showing W. & J. Sloane's. [239-245 Broadway] Copy one.

General note

13 1/4 x 9 1/2 inches; inscribed LL: Broadway West No 4; inscribed LR:  V Prevost 1854/East 28th No 28

1854
Box: 1 Folder : 7 Bixby's Hotel, Northwest corner of Broadway & Park Place, showing W. & J. Sloane's. [239-245 Broadway] Copy two.

General note

13 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches

undated
Box: 1 Folder : 8 Cottage on Bradhurst estate near 148th Street & Saint Nicholas Avenue

General note

13 1/2 x 10 1/4 inches

undated
Box: 1 Folder : 9 Bradhurst Cottage on Bloomingdale Road near head of Breakneck Hill, before grading of property

General note

13 5/8 x 9 1/2 inches

undated
Box: 1 Folder : 10 Bradhurst Cottage on Bloomingdale Road near head of Breakneck Hill after grading of property

General note

13 1/2 x 9 5/8 inches

undated
Box: 1 Folder : 11 Bradhurst Cottage on Bloomingdale Road near 148th Street (occupied by Molineaux Bell.)

General note

13 1/8 x 9 3/8 inches; damaged negative.

undated
Box: 1 Folder : 12 Church of the Incarnation, Madison Avenue & 26th Street

General note

9 1/4x 7 1/4 inches

undated
Box: 1 Folder : 13 Old Columbia College, foot of Park Place. Corner building, sharp focus

General note

13 1/2 x 10 1/4 inches

[1854]
Box: 1 Folder : 14 Old Columbia College, foot of Park Place. Corner building, blurred focus

General note

13 1/2 x 10 1/4 inches

[1854]
Box: 2 Folder : 15 Columbia College, foot of Park Place. Full block view

General note

13 1/2 x 10 1/4 inches

[1854]
Box: 1 Folder : 16 Devlin's Tailoring Establishment, Broadway & Warren Street, facing City Hall Park. [258-260 Broadway] First view

General note

13 3/8 x 10 1/4 inches; inscribed LR: V. Prevost 1854

1854
Box: 2 Folder : 17 Devlin's Tailoring Establishment, Broadway & Warren Street, facing City Hall Park. [258-260 Broadway] Second view

General note

13 3/8 x 10 1/4 inches

[1854]
Box: 2 Folder : 18 Engine used to run machinery in the Crystal Palace [Winter Iron Works] First view

General note

10 1/4 x 13 1/8 inches; inscribed LR: N.Y. Victor Prevost 1854/East 28th No 28

1854
Box: 2 Folder : 19 Engine used to run machinery in the Crystal Palace [Winter Iron Works] Second view

General note

10 1/4 x 13 1/4 inches; inscribed LL: V. Prevost. 1854. Crystal Palace

1854
Box: 2 Folder : 20 Grace Church and [showing side of ] Michael Flannely's [marble] Cutting Establishment, Broadway & 10th Street

General note

13 1/2 x 10-1/8 inches

[1853-1854]
Box: 2 Folder : 21 Gurney's Daguerrean Gallery, Broadway & Leonard Street; also including Home of American Institute [349-353 Broadway] Copy one.

General note

13 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches

undated
Box: 2 Folder : 22 Gurney's Daguerrean Gallery, Broadway & Leonard Street; also including Home of American Institute [349-353 Broadway] Copy two.

General note

13 3/8 x 10 1/8 inches

undated
Box: 2 Folder : 23 Old Herring Sage Factory, occupying block, 13th Street-9th Avenue-12th Street-Hudson

General note

10 1/8 x 13 1/4 inches

undated
Box: 2 Folder : 24 Looking toward Madison Square from rear window of 28 East 28th Street, showing Adrian Iselin's house and stable then building. Copy one.

General note

13 3/8 x 10 1/4 inches

[1854 summer]
Box: 2 Folder : 25 Looking toward Madison Square from rear window of 28 East 28th Street, showing Adrian Iselin's house and stable then building. Copy two.

General note

13 3/8 x 10 1/4 inches; negative watermarked LL: FRERES

[1854 winter]
Box: 2 Folder : 26 Madison Square, showing South Dutch Church, 5th Avenue & 21st Street, including view of Adrian Iselin's house, view made from rear window of artist's home, 28 East 28th Street.

General note

13 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches

[1854 winter]
Box: 2 Folder : 27 Marble working establishment of P. Gori, Broadway & 20th Street. Site once occupied by Lord & Taylor [897 Broadway]

General note

13 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches

undated
Box: 2 Folder : 28 The Old Mill on site of Ship Canal between Harlem & Hudson at Kingsbridge

General note

13 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches

undated
Box: 2 Folder : 29 Dr. Valentine Mott House at 94th Street & Bloomingdale Road

General note

12 1/2 x 9 3/4 inches

undated
Box: 2 Folder : 30 Clothing Store of Alfred Munroe & Co. and Piano Warehouse at 441 Broadway

General note

13 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches; inscribed LL: Broadway West No 5; inscribed LR:  V. Prevost 1854

1854
Box: 3 Folder : 31 Power's Greek Slave at Crystal Palace Exhibition

General note

10 x 6 3/4 inches

[1853-1854]
Box: 3 Folder : 32 Reed & Sturges Warehouses, 125-127 Front Street. First view [large format]

General note

13 1/2 x 10 1/4 inches; inscribed LR: V. Prevost 1857

1857 [spring]
Box: 3 Folder : 33 Reed & Sturges Warehouses, 125-127 Front Street. First view [small format]

General note

8 1/2 x 7 inches with domed top

[1857 spring]
Box: 3 Folder : 34 Reed & Sturges Warehouses, 125-127 Front Street. Second view.

General note

10 1/2 x 13 1/2 inches

[1857 spring]
Box: 3 Folder : 35 Ringuet-LePrince, Marcotte & Co., 4th Street near Broadway [654 Broadway]

General note

13 1/2 x 9 1/4 inches; inscribed LL:[?]108 V Prevost N.Y. 1854

1854
Box: 3 Folder : 36 St. Stephen's Roman Catholic Church, 28th Street near 3rd Avenue, showing building just completed & before gradation of the street is completed

General note

13 1/2 x 10 1/4 inches

[1853-1854 spring]
Box: 3 Folder : 37 Statuary at Crystal Palace [five sculptures by Pradier]

General note

13 1/2 x 9 1/2 inches

[1853-1854]
Box: 3 Folder : 38 Statuary at Crystal Palace

General note

13 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches

[1853-1854]
Box: 3 Folder : 39 Statuary at Crystal Palace [Persephone by Hiram Powers]

General note

9 1/2 x 7 inches

[1853-1854]
Box: 3 Folder : 40 Statuary at Crystal Palace [Eve by Hiram Powers]

General note

9 1/2 x 7 inches

[1853-1854]
Box: 3 Folder : 41 Statuary at Crystal Palace [Fisher Boy by Hiram Powers]

General note

9 1/2 x 7 inches

[1853-1854]
Box: 3 Folder : 42 Statuary at Crystal Palace

General note

13 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches with domed top

[1853-1854]
Box: 3 Folder : 43 Interior of Tripler Hall, Broadway, nearly opposite Bond Street

General note

10 x 12 1/4 inches

[1853]
Box: 3 Folder : 44 Unidentified Villa, evidently on East bank of Hudson, opposite Palisade

General note

10 1/2 x 13 1/2 inches

undated

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Series II. Contact Prints from Calotype Negatives

Scope and Contents note

Prints in this series have four separate origins, but are now interfiled by Prevost image number; expanded title and size descriptions appear in Series I. The number of copies of each print follows its title.

Existence and Location of Copies

Digital copies are available in the Shelby White and Leon Levy Digital Library.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 4 Folder : 45 Prevost 1: All Soul's Unitarian Church (5 prints)
Box: 4 Folder : 46 Prevost 2: D. Appleton & Co. (6 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 47 Prevost 3: Battery Place (7 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 48 Prevost 4: Charles Beck's Store (5 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 49 Prevost 5: Charles Beck's Store (5 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 50 Prevost 6: Bixby's Hotel [239-245 Broadway] (1 copy)
Box: 4 Folder : 51 Prevost 7: Bixby's Hotel [239-245 Broadway] (5 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 52 Prevost 8: Cottage on Bradhurst estate (5 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 53 Prevost 9: Bradhurst Cottage, before grading of property (5 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 54 Prevost 10: Bradhurst Cottage, after grading of property (5 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 55 Prevost 11: Bradhurst Cottage (4 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 56 Prevost 12: Church of the Incarnation (3 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 57 Prevost 13: Old Columbia College, sharp focus (4 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 58 Prevost 14: Old Columbia College, blurred focus (2 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 59 Prevost 15: Old Columbia College, full block view (5 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 60 Prevost 16: Devlin's Tailoring Establishment, first view (6 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 61 Prevost 17: Devlin's Tailoring Establishment, second view (1 copy)
Box: 4 Folder : 62 Prevost 18: Engine in the Crystal Palace, first view (3 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 63 Prevost 19: Engine in the Crystal Palace, second view (1 copy)
Box: 4 Folder : 64 Prevost 20: Grace Church (5 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 65 Prevost 21: Gurney's Daguerrean Gallery, copy one (5 copies)
Box: 4 Folder : 66 Prevost 22: Gurney's Daguerrean Gallery, copy two (1 copy)
Box: 4 Folder : 67 Prevost 23: Old Herring's Safe Factory (5 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 68 Prevost 24: Looking north toward Madison Square, copy one (1 copy)
Box: 5 Folder : 69 Prevost 25: Looking north toward Madison Square, copy two (3 copies)

General note

See also: Oversize-Flat File Folder OS-1

Box: 5 Folder : 70 Prevost 26: Madison Square (4 copies)

General note

See also: Oversize-Flat File Folder OS-1

Box: 5 Folder : 71 Prevost 27: Marble working establishment of P. Gori [897 Broadway] (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 72 Prevost 28: The Old Mill on site of Ship Canal (5 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 73 Prevost 29: Dr. Valentine Mott House (5 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 74 Prevost 30: Clothing Store of Alfred Munroe & Co. (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 75 Prevost 31: Power's Greek Slave at Crystal Palace Exhibition (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 76 Prevost 32: Reed & Sturges Warehouses, first view [large format]. (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 76A Prevost 33: Reed & Sturges Warehouses, first view [small format] (2 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 77 Prevost 34: Reed & Sturges Warehouses, second view. (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 78 Prevost 35: Ringuet-LePrince, Marcotte & Co. (5 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 79 Prevost 36: St. Stephen's Roman Catholic Church (3 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 80 Prevost 37: Statuary at Crystal Palace [sculptures by Pradier] (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 81 Prevost 38: Statuary at Crystal Palace (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 82 Prevost 39: Statuary at Crystal Palace [Persephone] (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 83 Prevost 40: Statuary at Crystal Palace [Eve] (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 84 Prevost 41: Statuary at Crystal Palace [Fisher Boy] (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 85 Prevost 42: Statuary at Crystal Palace (4 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 86 Prevost 43: Interior of Tripler Hall, Broadway (5 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 87 Prevost 44: Unidentified Villa (4 copies)

OVERSIZE MATERIAL - MOUNTED PHOTOGRAPHS

Container 1     Title Date
Folder: OS FF 1 Prevost 25: Looking north toward Madison Square, copy two
Folder: OS FF 1 Prevost 26: Madison Square

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Series III. Prints of Prevost Images in Other Collections

Scope and Contents note

There are three prints in the series, and all are scenes in New York. Two of these are identified as prints from an original negative in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and are images of Root's Daguerrean Gallery on Broadway in New York; they appear to be made from the same negative with a slight variation in cropping.

The third print is an exterior shot of the New York Crystal Palace and Latting Observatory, attributed to Victor Prevost or his partner P.C. Duchochois. It is not clear whether a negative of this image is extant. This print was the gift of Charles Scwartz, 2003.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 5 Folder : 88 Root's Daguerrean Gallery, Broadway (2 copies)
Box: 5 Folder : 88 New York Crystal Palace and Latting Observatory
circa 1853-1854

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