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Guide to the John Albok Negatives PHOTOS.063

Elmer Holmes Bobst Library
70 Washington Square South
New York, NY, 10012
(212) 998-2630

Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive

Collection processed by Maneesha Patel and Erika Gottfried, 2004-2007, with the assistance of Emily Brewer-Yarnell, Stephina Fisher, Bridget Hartzler, Mieke Duffly, Benjamin Hatch, and Shelley Lightburn.

This finding aid was produced using the Archivists' Toolkit on March 27, 2015
Description is in English.

 Edited by Nicole Greenhouse with updated adminstrative information; revised by Erika Gottfried to reflect updated intellectual property information.  , March 2015

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Albok, John, 1894-1982
Title: John Albok Negatives
Dates [inclusive]: 1933-1968, (Bulk 1960-1968)
Dates [bulk]: Bulk, 1960-1968
Abstract: Hungarian immigrant photographer John Albok (1894-1982) is known for his sensitive depiction of Central Park, children, and New York City street life during the Depression. Less well known are his images of political protest. The collection includes 433 black and white negatives shot in New York City, between 1933 and 1968, that document May Day and Labor Day parades and demonstrations against the Vietnam War.
Quantity: 3.0 linear feet 433 4x5 black and white negatives
Call Phrase: PHOTOS.063

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Historical/Biographical Note

John Albok was born in Munkacs, Hungary (present-day Ukraine), in 1894, the oldest of eleven children. It was there, at age 12, that he began taking photographs with a Kodak Brownie. In one version of the story, he received the camera as a gift, in another, he swapped a pair of binoculars for it. Although Albok wanted to pursue a formal art education, his family was unable to afford it, and at 13 he began an apprenticeship to a master tailor. Four years later, Albok was drafted into the Hungarian army, where, as part of his service, he documented prison and hospital life, using a folding camera and an astigmatic lens. One of the hospital's physicians proposed an exhibition of these photographs, but the exhibit never took place, and the doctor never returned the prints Albok had made of these images. Wartime brought Albok's family tragedy: his father committed suicide and two of his sisters died of starvation. After the war, Albok worked as a tailor and continued to make photographs--mostly of landscapes and townscapes--and decided to emigrate to the United States.

In 1921, at age 27, Albok emigrated to the United States. In 1923, he opened a tailor shop in New York City, at 1392 Madison Avenue at 96th Street. In 1924, he married a fellow Hungarian immigrant, Ilona Kiss. They had one child, a daughter, also named Ilona, born in 1925. The family lived above the shop until Albok's death. Albok pursued photography alongside his trade. For sixty years, using a 5 x 7 view camera and then a twin lens reflex camera, Albok took as his subject people and passersby outside his shop, and New York City life during the Depression, and World War II. Central Park, children, street scenes, and people at leisure were also among his preferred subjects. He also documented political upheaval and labor and left activism in New York throughout these same decades, including many photographs of May Day and Labor Day parades, antiwar demonstrations, and anti-Vietnam War rallies.

These pictures form the critical mass of his photographic work and have been compared to photographs commissioned by the Farm Security Administration. Of his Depression photographs, Albok remarked: "I photographed many poor souls, trying my best to leave them their most precious heritage-their dignity. There was nothing else left." Albok was also well-known as a photographer in the New York's Hungarian community. He documented many of that community's events, from weddings to picnics and political rallies, and specialized in portraiture. He printed and developed his photographs in his tailor shop.

Albok was keenly aware of himself as a photographer with a unique experience, and considered himself an artist. On a wall on building adjacent to his shop, he maintained a large mural with a quotation by James Agee: "Well used, the camera is unique in its power to develop and to delight our ability to see." Under the quotation, in large bold letters, was "John Albok's New York."

Albok held precise ideas about the mutual exclusivity of working to earn a living and being an artist, and the relationship of photography to both. He saw photographers as belonging to four categories: The first category consisted of commercial photographers without the time to develop themselves as artists because of financial and societal constraints. A second category of photographers included those who pursued photography as a hobby, but had little talent, and a third category of photographers were driven by greed. The fourth category, he wrote, included "those who make time and are patient and develop themselves as artists, but don't do it for the money." It was to this category that he believed he himself belonged. While this held true for most of his life, Albok did work as a photographer for several years, when the Depression forced him to temporarily close his tailor shop. In 1938, along with a fellow Hungarian immigrant, a Mr. Kantor, Albok opened a portrait studio that they called the "World's Fair Studio," between Lexington and Park Avenues on 96th Street. With the money he made taking portraits of wealthy Upper East Side clients and their pets, Albok was able to make ends meet and reopen his tailoring business.

Albok eventually garnered critical recognition for his photographs. In 1929, he submitted a portrait of his daughter to the Eastman Kodak Amateur Photo Contest and won. In 1937, he won a weekly photo contest held by the New York Herald Tribune. This brought him to the attention of Grace Mayer, a curator for the Museum of the City of New York, and led to a one-person exhibition, entitled  Faces of the City, at the Museum in 1938. As part of the event, Albok addressed the Rockefeller Center Camera Club, and gave a talk about the "art of photography as it is actually practiced in the United States." Although Albok continued to occasionally exhibit his work from that time forward, he was "rediscovered" by photography critics in the 1980s, when the Museum of the City of New York held a second one-person show for him, titled,  Tailored Images. He did not live to see it; he died of cancer on January 10, 1982, only one day before the opening of the exhibit.

Today, John Albok's work is found not only in the collections of the Museum of the City of New York, but also at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Getty Museum, the New York Historical Society, the Smithsonian, the New York Public Library, and the Archives of the Puerto Rican Diaspora at Hunter College, as well as in collections in Hungary.

In addition to a number of articles on John Albok's work in art journals and magazines, there are two monographs on Albok's work: Through the Eye of the Needle, and  John Albok: For the Children, both catalogs of exhibitions of his photographs. He was also the subject of two documentary films produced for television:  John Albok's New York, produced by CBS in 1966, and  John Albok, Merchant Tailor, made for Swedish television in 1977.

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Scope and Content Note

The collection consists of 433 black and white negatives. These were shot from 1933 through 1968 and document May Day parades from 1933-1938 (a number of which were shot in New York City's traditional gathering place for public protests and demonstrations, Union Square), Labor Day parades from the early 1960s, and demonstrations against the Vietnam War in 1968.

The collection is comprised of "shoots" (groups of photographic images shot by the photographer of one event—usually on the same day). Each shoot has a unique identifying number (selected individual images within shoots have also been assigned individual numbers). The container list for this finding aid includes a list of shoot-level descriptions for all the images in the collection arranged chronologically; note that shoot numbers are listed under the column for "item." These descriptions include shoot number, date, and shoot description. Shoot descriptions include Albok's original captions (slightly edited for clarity), as well as clarifications, corrections, identifications, and additional visual details provided by the processing archivists. These additions are enclosed within square brackets.

This collection has been microfilmed (R-7850) to provide reference access and is available for viewing in this format only. To see a complete list of microfilmed shoots, with reel and frame numbers, click here.

There are also seven photographic prints from 1938-1939, and the 1960s.


Arranged in chronological order.

Organized into 1 series:

  1. I, Demonstrations/Rallies/Parades.

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Access Points

Document Type

  • Black-and-white negatives.
  • Black-and-white photographs.

Subject Topics

  • Labor Day |y 1960-1970.
  • Labor unions -- New York (State) -- New York -x Parades.
  • May Day -- New York (State) -- New York -x Parades.
  • Vietnam War, 1961-1975 -x Protest Movements -- United States -v Pictorial works.

Subject Places

  • New York (N.Y.)
  • New York (N.Y.) |x History |y 20th century.
  • Union Square (New York, N.Y.)

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Administrative Information

Access Restrictions

Open for research without restrictions.

Use Restrictions

Copyright to these materials was transferred to the Tamiment Library by the donor.

Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:

Identification of item, date; John Albok Negatives; PHOTOS.063; box number; folder number;
Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
Elmer Holmes Bobst Library
70 Washington Square South
New York, NY 10012, New York University Libraries.

Immediate Source of Acquisition note

The collection was donated in two accessions by Ilona Albok Vitarius, John Albok's daughter, in 1989 and 1994. The accession numbers associated with the 1989 accession are 1989.001, 1989.004, NPA.2000.036 and NPA.2006.085.

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Container List

Series I: Demonstrations/Rallies/Parades

Scope and Contents note

This collection has been microfilmed (R-7850) and must be used in that format. To see a complete list of microfilmed shoots, with reel and frame numbers, click here.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 1 Shoot : 304 May Day
May 1, 1933
Box: 1 Shoot : 273 May Day: #1 "Burke Avenue Progressive Union"; #2 "The Sister Act"; #3 "Collecting Money in Flag."; #4 "Unite-- Free Tom Mooney. Patronize Union Restaurants Only"; #5 "Singing Internationale"; #6 "Free Thaelman and Tom Mooney" [Workers Make NY a Union City]; #7 [Support the Frazier-Lundeen Bill]; #8 "Grodzisker Br. 233"; #9 "The Little Red and Father"; #10 "[ACWA for] Farmers Labor Party"; #11 [Painters DC 9 $9 for 7 Hours]; #12 "Bagpiper"; #13 "Away with Fire Traps"
May 1, 1936
Box: 1 Shoot : 272 May Day, Union Square: 1# [Film Cameraman on top of car]; #2 "Fire engines disrupting May Day parade"; #5 "Workers and Union"; #12 [Puppet Heads?]; #13 "The Band"; #17 [Sign: Communist Party Exec Bid 20th District Assembly Manhattan]; #18 "Teachers' Union"; #22 [Sign: White labor will never be free with Black labor enchained]"; #23 [Sign: Workers Alliance of Greater N.Y. Crown Heights Branch]; #24 [Cameraman on car]; #25 [Sign: Adequate Relief for the Unemployed/ Curb the Supreme Court]; #27 "Pathe News Truck"; #27 [Furriers Joint Council locals 101, 105, 110, 115 and bicycle riders]; #28 [Hospital Employees, Local 171 BSEI]; #34 "The Negro Theatre"; #35 [Float -- Workers Alliance Spain]; #36 [End Child Labor]"; #38 [Float: Hitler's Horrorland/poison gas, swastika]"; #39 [Yiddish Contingents]; #41 "Trying to disrupt parade"; #43 [Lincoln Brigade]; #44 "A Seat for Every Child/ Free Tom Mooney"; #45 [Bookkeepers, Stenographers and Accountants Union]; #49 "Pathe News"; #50 "Free All Class War Prisoners"; #51 [Float: $4 Billion for Public Works -- Workers Alliance HR 5822]"; #52 "Pay Raise"; #54 [Accountants]; #55 [Federal Writers Project]; #56 [District Council 9 Painters]; #57 [Hoffman's Cafeteria -- 100% Union Float/ Get Wise + Organize -- Food Workers]; #60 [Book and Magazine Guild of America]; #67 "To Aid Spain, Technical Staff of Committees to Aid Spain -- Lincoln Brigade"; #68 "Down with Callism[?] and the Gold Shirts murderers -- workers of Mexico"; #69, 71, 72, 73 "To Aid Spain Technical Staff of Committees to Aid Spain -- Lincoln Brigade"
May 1, 1937
Box: 1 Shoot : 266 May Day: #1 "CP [Communist Party] Washington Heights"; #2 "JIB [Joint Industry Board] McNamara Poster"; #3 "Father Divine [?]"; #8 "Lincoln Brigade. Support Heroic People of Spain Down with [?] and the Murderers of Mexico"; #10 "Sacco Vanzetti Thaelman"; #11 "Father Divine Workers Group"; #12 [Communist Party Arm Band: Unite Against War]; #13 "Maytime Demonstration Communist Party"
May 1, 1938
Box: 1 Shoot : 282 May Day: Hungarian Chapter; Uj Elore
May 1, 1938
Box: 1 Shoot : 305 May Day
May 1, 1938
Box: 1 Shoot : 256 May Day: #1 "Father Divine Parade Against War"; #4 "March From Union Square"
May 1, 1938
Box: 1 Shoot : 407 Labor Day
Box: 1 Shoot : 419 Labor Day
Box: 1 Shoot : 415 Labor Day: Slogans include "TWU says: US needs a Labor Party"
Sep 1960
Box: 1 Shoot : 416 Labor Day: Slogans include "Pass Anti-Scab Legislation" and "TWU Supports Freedom Riders"
Sep 1960
Box: 1 Shoot : 417 Labor Day
Sep 1961
Box: 1 Shoot : 418 Labor Day
Sep 1961
Box: 1 Shoot : 412 Labor Day
Sep 4, 1961
Box: 1 Shoot : 413 Labor Day
Sep 4, 1961
Box: 1 Shoot : 414 Labor Day
Sep 4, 1961
Box: 1 Shoot : 411 Labor Day
Sep 4, 1961
Box: 1 Shoot : 406 Labor Day
Box: 1 Shoot : 409 Demonstration against Vietnam War: Union Groups
Box: 1 Shoot : 408 March against Vietnam War: Workers Party
Apr 27, 1968
Box: 1 Shoot : 410 Labor March (Other Street Scenes)
Sep 1968

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