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Guide to the Eugene V. Debs Papers TAM.020

Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
Elmer Holmes Bobst Library
70 Washington Square South
10th Floor
New York, NY 10012
(212) 998-2630
tamiment.wagner@nyu.edu


Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives

Collection processed by Hillel Arnold, 2008

This finding aid was produced using ArchivesSpace on April 24, 2018
Description is in English using Describing Archives: A Content Standard

 Updated by Megan O'Shea to incorporate artwork being sent to offsite art storage in September 2017.  , August 2017

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Debs, Eugene V. (Eugene Victor), 1855-1926
Source - dnr: Cooper, Marguerite Debs
Source - dnr: De Ford, Miriam Allen, 1888-1975
Title: Eugene V. Debs Papers
Dates [inclusive]: 1886-1966
Abstract: Eugene V. Debs was president of the American Railway Union, an advocate of industrial unionism and a founding member of the Industrial Workers of the World, and a five-time candidate for president of the United States on the Socialist Party ticket. The collection, comprised of material donated to the Tamiment Library by several individuals, contains correspondence, examples of Debs' published speeches and writings, newspaper clippings, graphics, ephemera and material relating to the Eugene V. Debs Foundation. Included is a selection of material collected by Debs' attorney, Samuel Castleton, relating to Debs' imprisonment for opposition to U.S. involvement in World War I. Among the correspondents are: James Oneal, Algernon Lee, Edwin Markham and Seymour Stedman.
Quantity: 2.5 Linear Feet (5 boxes)
Mixed Materials [Box]: 1-5
Call Phrase: TAM.020

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Historical/Biographical Note

Born in Terre Haute, Indiana, to French immigrant parents, Eugene V. Debs worked as a painter on the railroad and as a clerk, while becoming active in Democratic politics at the local and state levels. He gained prominence as editor of the magazine of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, and served as secretary-treasurer of the union. In 1893 he broke away from the conservative Brotherhood to organize the American Railway Union (ARU), one of the first industrial unions in the United States. After leading the ARU in a bitter strike against the Pullman Company in 1894, he was sentenced to six months in jail. He was among the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World in 1905, but broke with the organization in 1908.

Debs ran for president of the United States in 1900 as the standard-bearer of the newly formed Social Democratic Party, a precursor of the Socialist Party of America. A compelling orator and charismatic leader, he was the Socialist Party's presidential candidate in 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1920.

On June 16, 1918, Debs delivered an impassioned speech in Canton, Ohio in opposition to the United States' involvement in World War I. He was arrested and tried under the Espionage Act of 1917; the indictment accused him of "attempting to cause insubordination, mutiny, disloyalty and refusal of duty within the military…. [and promoting] the cause of the Imperial German Government." He was sentenced, at the age of sixty-three, to serve ten years in federal prison. In 1920, while still imprisoned at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary, Debs conducted his last campaign for president; he won more than 900,000 votes - 3.5 percent of the total. On December 25, 1921, President Warren G. Harding commuted Debs' sentence to time served and Debs was released from prison.

After his release, and despite his worsening health, Debs continued to speak and publish widely on behalf of the Socialist Party, and related causes such as the campaign to free Sacco and Vanzetti. He died at the age of 70 at Lindlahr Sanitarium in Elmhurst, IL on October 20, 1926, and was buried in Terre Haute.

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Scope and Content Note

The collection contains correspondence, including some letters from Debs to James Oneal, Algernon Lee and Edwin Markham. Letters from Theodore Debs' regarding his brother are also present in the collection. Published copies of Debs' speeches and writings are also included, as are newspaper clippings and subject files. The papers of Samuel Castleton, Debs' attorney during his trial under the 1917 Espionage Act, contain correspondence and copies of Castleton's column in the Appeal to Reason entitled "Debs in Prison."

Of particular significance are materials relating to Frank X. Holl, a colleague of Debs' from the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen; the large body of correspondence between Theodore Debs and Socialist Party activist Joseph Cohen; clippings relating to the production of a Debs Medallion in 1914; subject files on Debs' "Red Special" campaign train; publicity materials from the Eugene V. Debs Foundation; and a set of playing cards with depictions of Debs and other labor leaders produced by the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America.

Arrangement

Folders are arranged alphabetically.

The files are grouped into four series:

Missing Title

  1. I, Correspondence, 1899-1965
  2. II, General Files, 1892-1966
  3. III, Samuel Castleton Papers, 1886-1951
  4. IV, Oversize.

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Access Points

Subject Names

  • Brommel, Bernard J., 1930-
  • Germer, Adolph.
  • Holl, Frank X.
  • Markham, Edwin, 1852-1940
  • Oneal, James, 1875-1962
  • Castleton, Samuel.
  • Cohen, Joseph E., 1883-1950
  • Debs, Eugene V. (Eugene Victor), 1855-1926
  • Debs, Theodore, 1864-1945
  • Stedman, Seymour.
  • Cooper, Marguerite Debs
  • De Ford, Miriam Allen, 1888-1975

Document Type

  • Speeches.
  • Correspondence.
  • Legal documents.
  • Articles.
  • Brochures.
  • Clippings (information artifacts)

Subject Organizations

  • Socialist Party (U.S.)
  • Eugene V. Debs Foundation
  • Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen (U.S.)
  • American Railway Union

Subject Topics

  • Socialists -- United States -- Biography.
  • Trials (Sedition) -- United States.
  • Socialists -- United States -v Correspondence.
  • Labor leaders -- United States -v Correspondence.
  • Railroads -x Employees -x Labor unions -- United States.
  • Labor leaders -- United States -v Biography.

Subject Places

  • Terre Haute (Ind.)

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Administrative Information

Custodial History

This is an assembled collection, created by Tamiment Library staff over a number of years and derived from a variety of sources. Marguerite Debs Cooper, daughter of Eugene Debs, donated materials in 1947 and in the early 1960s. Miriam Allen deFord donated materials in 1959. The Samuel Castleton Papers were donated by his daughter, Sylvia Weyl Castleton at an unknown date. The accession number 1950.159 is associated with this collection.

Conditions Governing Access

Materials are open without restrictions.

Conditions Governing Use

Because of the assembled nature of this collection, copyright status varies across the collection. Copyright is assumed to be held by the original creator of individual items in the collection; these items are expected to pass into the public domain 120 years after their creation. Tamiment Library is not authorized to grant permission to publish or reproduce materials from this collection.

Preferred Citation

Identification of item, date; Eugene V. Debs Collection; TAM 020; box number; folder number; Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, New York University.

Related Material at the Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives

Eugene V. Debs Photographs (PHOTOS 004)

Immediate Source of Acquisition

This is an assembled collection, created by Tamiment Library staff over a number of years and derived from a variety of sources. Donated by Marguerite Debs Cooper, daughter of Eugene Debs, in 1947 and 1962. Another accession was donated by Miriam Allen deFord in 1959. The accession number associated with these gifts is 1950.159.

Processing Information

The Eugene V. Debs Graphics Collection (GRAPHICS 007) was incorporated into this collection at an unknown date.

In August 2017, three busts and two portraits of Eugene V. Debs were retroactively accessioned into this collection and were prepared to be moved to offsite art storage in September 2017.

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Container List

Series I: Correspondence, 1899-1955.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 1 Folder : 1 Cooper, Marguerite Debs: Outgoing
1947 , 1961 , 1965
Box: 1 Folder : 2 Debs, Eugene V.: Outgoing
1906-1925
Box: 1 Folder : 3 Debs, Eugene V.: to Joseph Cohen
1908-1925
Box: 1 Folder : 4 Debs, Eugene V.: to C.W. Ervin (photocopies, from Archives of Labor History and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University)
1907-1922
Box: 1 Folder : 5 Debs, Eugene V.: to Algernon Lee
1907 , 1918 , 1923
Box: 1 Folder : 6 Debs, Eugene V.: to Edwin Markham (photocopies, from Edwin Markham Archive, Wagner College)
1899-1923
Box: 1 Folder : 7 Debs, Eugene V.: to James Oneal
1910-1921
Box: 1 Folder : 8 Debs, Katherine M.: Incoming and Outgoing
1926-1930
Box: 1 Folder : 9 Debs, Theodore: Outgoing
1920-1926
Box: 1 Folder : 10 Debs, Theodore: to Joseph Cohen
1917-1926
Box: 1 Folder : 11 Debs, Theodore: to Joseph Cohen
1929-1936
Box: 1 Folder : 12 Debs, Theodore: to Joseph Cohen
1937-1945
Box: 1 Folder : 13 Debs, Theodore: to Algernon Lee
1914 , 1920-1923 , 1944-1945
Box: 1 Folder : 14 Debs, Theodore: to James Oneal
1921-1922 , 1926-1927 , 1936-1943
Box: 1 Folder : 15 Germer, Adolph: Incoming
1911-1945
Box: 1 Folder : 16 Loeb, Mitchell (re: Debs, Sacco and Vanzetti)
1955, undated
Box: 1 Folder : 17 Long, Fred W.: to Joseph Cohen
1908
Box: 1 Folder : 18 Lyndenberg, H. M.: to and from Algernon Lee
Mar 1927
Box: 1 Folder : 19 Moore, Samuel: to Joseph Cohen
1920-1927
Box: 1 Folder : 20 Stedman, Seymour: Incoming
1918-1919
Box: 1 Folder : 21 Stedman, Seymour: Outgoing
1918-1919
Box: 1 Folder : 22 Stone, Irving: to Joseph Cohen
1945

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Series II: Subject Files, 1892-1966.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 1 Folder : 23 Aldred, Guy A.: Convict 9653: America's Vision Maker
undated
Box: 1 Folder : 24 Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America: Playing Cards Depicting Prominent Labor Leaders (Debs is depicted on the ace of clubs)
undated
Box: 1 Folder : 25 Articles by Debs
1892 , 1897 , 1904-1906
Box: 1 Folder : 26 Articles by Debs
1910-1916
Box: 1 Folder : 27 Articles by Debs
1917-1926
Box: 1 Folder : 28 Articles by Debs
undated
Box: 1 Folder : 29 Articles: "Review and Personal Statement" (typescript)
undated
Box: 1 Folder : 30 Banquet in Honor of Eugene V. Debs: Program
Oct 9, 1925
Box: 1 Folder : 31 Biographical and General Information
1920 , 1927
Box: 1 Folder : 32 Brent, Joseph: "Different Characters: Roosevelt, Lincoln, Taft and Debs" (typescript)
1907
Box: 1 Folder : 33 Brommel, Bernard J.: Articles
1966-1969
Box: 1 Folder : 34 Brommel, Bernard J.: Interviews and Notes
1960
Box: 1 Folder : 35 Brommel, Bernard J.: Research Correspondence
1961-1962
Box: 1 Folder : 36 Clippings
1904 , 1910 , 1919
Box: 1 Folder : 37 Clippings
1920-1929
Box: 1 Folder : 38 Clippings
1942-1943
Box: 1 Folder : 39 Clippings
1955-1959 , 1964
Box: 1 Folder : 40 Clippings
undated
Box: 2 Folder : 1 Clippings: Articles by James Oneal
1920-1925
Box: 2 Folder : 2 Clippings: Debs Medallion
Apr 5, 1914
Box: 2 Folder : 3 Clippings: Eugene V. Debs Foundation
1960-1969
Box: 2 Folder : 4 Coldwell, Joseph M.: My Life in Prison With Debs
undated
Box: 2 Folder : 5 Conscience of America: The Years Between (teleplay, typescript)
Feb 1976
Box: 2 Folder : 6 Cooke, Edmund Vance: "Eugene" (poem)
1918
Box: 2 Folder : 7 Cummings, Mary Vincent: "Memories of Girard, Kansas, Eugene V. Debs and Me"
1976
Box: 2 Folder : 8 Debs Amnesty Committee: What Did Debs Say?
undated
Box: 2 Folder : 9 Debs Amnesty Committee: Unlock That Cell!
undated
Box: 2 Folder : 10 Debs, Katherine Metzel: Obituary
Dec 12, 1936
Box: 2 Folder : 11 Debs Meeting Committee: Correspondence
1923
Box: 2 Folder : 12 Debs Meeting Committee: Ephemera
1923
Box: 2 Folder : 13 Debs Meeting Committee: Financial
1923
Box: 2 Folder : 14 Debs Meeting Committee: General
1923-1963
Box: 2 Folder : 15 Eugene V. Debs Foundation: Brochures
1963-1966 , 1977
Box: 2 Folder : 16 Eugene V. Debs Foundation: Correspondence
1963-1965
Box: 2 Folder : 17 Eugene V. Debs Foundation: Reports
1962-1963
Box: 2 Folder : 18 Eugene V. Debs v. United States of America (United States Supreme Court): Brief for Plaintiffs in Error
Oct 1918
Box: 2 Folder : 19 Eugene V. Debs v. United States of America (United States Supreme Court): Certificate in Support of Petition for Rehearing
Oct 1918
Box: 2 Folder : 20 Eugene V. Debs v. United States of America (United States Supreme Court): Petition for Rehearing
Oct 1918
Box: 2 Folder : 21 Flower, J. Howard: At Death of Debs: The Modern Knight of Man
1926
Box: 2 Folder : 22 The Free Press: Special Debs Edition
1908
Box: 2 Folder : 23 Freund, Ernst: "The Debs Case and Freedom of Speech" (The New Republic)
May 3, 1919
Box: 2 Folder : 24 Friends of Debs Column: Why the Debs Column?
[1936]
Box: 2 Folder : 25 Harris, Ellis B.: Debs the Dreamer (poem)
undated
Box: 2 Folder : 26 Harvard Summer School News: "Inside Story of Debs War Arrest Bared by Miller"
Jul 15, 1938
Box: 2 Folder : 27 Holmes, John Haynes: The Riddle of Amnesty
1921
Box: 2 Folder : 28 Hook, Sidney: A Gallant American Rebel (Review of The Bending Cross: A Biography of Eugene Victor Debs)
Jul 17, 1949
Box: 2 Folder : 29 Hughan, Jesse Wallace: Our 'Gene
1920
Box: 2 Folder : 30 Hurt, Walter: Eugene V. Debs: An Introduction
undated
Box: 2 Folder : 31 Karsner, David: Debs in 1920
1920
Box: 2 Folder : 32 LaPrade, Ruth: To His Oppressors (poem)
undated
Box: 2 Folder : 33 London, Jack: "The Dream of Debs," adapted for radio by Harold L. Saks
undated
Box: 2 Folder : 34 MacLean, Isabel: The Religious Life of Eugene V. Debs
1912
Box: 2 Folder : 35 Meeting Notices for the Release of Debs
1921
Box: 2 Folder : 36 Miller, Martin H.: A Tribute to a Great American
1955
Box: 2 Folder : 37 National Civil Liberties Bureau: The Law of the Debs Case
undated
Box: 2 Folder : 38 Nearing, Scott: The Debs Decision (Rand School of Social Science pamphlet)
1919
Box: 2 Folder : 39 The New Justice: Special Debs Number
Apr 1, 1919
Box: 3 Folder : 1 Obituaries
Oct 1926
Box: 3 Folder : 2 Orr, Rev. Hugh Robert: The Last Christian: Eugene V. Debs (sermon)
1920
Box: 3 Folder : 3 Paulish, John and Frank P. Zeidler: Spirit of Gene Debs: March (musical score)
1938
Box: 3 Folder : 4 Publications: Childhood
1907
Box: 3 Folder : 5 Publications: Debs' Address to the Jury and Statement to the Court
Sep 1918
Box: 3 Folder : 6 Publications: Debs and the War
Sep 1918
Box: 3 Folder : 7 Publications: Debs on the Pacific Coast
1920
Box: 3 Folder : 8 Publications: Eugene V. Debs: The Man and His Work (one copy autographed)
Undated
Box: 3 Folder : 9 Publications: Eugene V. Debs: The Voice of Labor
1918
Box: 3 Folder : 10 Publications: Eugene Victor Debs, The Champion of the American Working-Class
1920
Box: 3 Folder : 11 Publications: Liberty
1895
Box: 3 Folder : 12 Publications: Martyred Apostles of Labor
1898
Box: 3 Folder : 13 Publications: Personal Notes and Recollections
undated
Box: 3 Folder : 14 Publications: Roosevelt's Heartless Tyranny
1912
Box: 3 Folder : 15 Publications: Socialist Unity
Jun 1920
Box: 3 Folder : 16 Publications: The Children of the Poor
1911
Box: 3 Folder : 17 Publications: The Debs Trilogy: Man, Woman, Child
1917
Box: 3 Folder : 18 Publications: The Mission of the Socialist Party
1904
Box: 3 Folder : 19 Publications: Tribute of Love to His Father and Mother
1899
Box: 3 Folder : 20 Publications: "Winning a World"
1905
Box: 3 Folder : 21 Publications: Woman - Comrade and Equal
1912
Box: 3 Folder : 22 Red Special Campaign Train
1908 , 1962
Box: 3 Folder : 23 Research Notes
undated
Box: 3 Folder : 24 Resolution on Release of Eugene V. Debs and Other Political Prisoners
1920
Box: 3 Folder : 25 Robinson, Arthur: The Great Dreamer
Nov 20 1926
Box: 3 Folder : 26 Socialist Call: Debs Centennial Issue
Oct 1955
Box: 3 Folder : 27 Socialist Party: The Heritage of Debs: The Fight Against War
1935
Box: 3 Folder : 28 Speeches
1900-1920
Box: 3 Folder : 29 Speeches: Canton Speech
Jun 16, 1918
Box: 3 Folder : 30 Speeches: Industrial Unionism
1905
Box: 3 Folder : 31 Stedman, Seymour: Closing Statement (excerpt, typescript)
undated
Box: 3 Folder : 32 Stokes, J. G. Phelps: Reasons for Supporting Mr. Debs
1908
Box: 3 Folder : 33 Swinton, John: 1860 - Lincoln; Debs - 1895
1895
Box: 3 Folder : 34 Taft, William H.: Ex-President Taft on Eugene V. Debs
1920
Box: 3 Folder : 35 Tamiment Institute Library Bulletin: Eugene Victor Debs Birthday Issue
Dec 1960
Box: 3 Folder : 36 Terrell, Joseph Z: "The Imprisonment of Eugene V. Debs" (typescript)
undated
Box: 3 Folder : 37 Thomas, Norman: Eugene Victor Debs
1924
Box: 3 Folder : 38 United States of America v. Eugene Debs (Michigan Circuit Court): Bill for Injunction
1894
Box: 3 Folder : 39 United States of America v. Eugene Debs (US District Court, Ohio): Copy of Indictment
Jun 1918
Box: 3 Folder : 40 Unsigned Articles
1918-1966
Box: 3 Folder : 41 Unsigned Typescript
undated
Box: 3 Folder : 42 "Winning a World" Speech Recording: Clippings and Correspondence
1905-1913 , 1961-1962

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Series III: Castleton Papers, 1886-1951.

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 3 Folder : 43 Castleton, Samuel: "Debs in Prison" (Column in Appeal to Reason)
1920-1921
Box: 3 Folder : 44 Chuca Choo! Song of the American Railway Union
1894
Box: 3 Folder : 45 Correspondence: Allen, Ruth A. to Samuel Castleton
Jun 1945
Box: 3 Folder : 46 Correspondence: Babcock, Charles H. to Frank X. Holl
1902 , 1913 , 1926
Box: 3 Folder : 47 Correspondence: Branstetter, Otto to Samuel Castleton
Feb 5, 1920
Box: 3 Folder : 48 Correspondence: Burke, Myrtle J. to Samuel Castleton
1945
Box: 3 Folder : 49 Correspondence: Burton, S. D. to Samuel Castleton
Oct 27, 1920
Box: 3 Folder : 50 Correspondence: Castleton, Samuel, Outgoing (typescript copies)
1920 , 1944-1945
Box: 3 Folder : 51 Correspondence: Debs, Eugene to Adolph Germer (typescript copies)
1902-1913
Box: 4 Folder : 1 Correspondence: Debs, Eugene to Frank X. Holl
1885-1912
Box: 4 Folder : 2 Correspondence: Debs, Theodore to Samuel Castleton
1920 , 1944
Box: 4 Folder : 3 Correspondence: Debs, Theodore to Mandel V. Halushka
Aug 4, 1945
Box: 4 Folder : 4 Correspondence: Debs, Theodore to Frank X. Holl
1904-1938
Box: 4 Folder : 5 Correspondence: DeVoe, Emma Smith to Frank X. Holl
Dec 14, 1910
Box: 4 Folder : 6 Correspondence: Fuhrberg, H. O. to Theodore Debs
Nov 5, 1926
Box: 4 Folder : 7 Correspondence: Germer, Adolph to Samuel Castleton
Sep 1945
Box: 4 Folder : 8 Correspondence: Halushka, Mandel V. to Samuel Castleton
1945
Box: 4 Folder : 9 Correspondence: Halushka, Mandel V. to Sylvia Weyl
1946-1947
Box: 4 Folder : 10 Correspondence: Holl, Frank X., Outgoing
undated , 1944
Box: 4 Folder : 11 Correspondence: O'Hare, Kate Richards to Samuel Castleton
Sep 16, 1945
Box: 4 Folder : 12 Correspondence: Sharts, Joseph to Samuel Castleton
Sep 8, 1920
Box: 4 Folder : 13 Correspondence: University of Texas Library to Samuel Castleton
1945-1946
Box: 4 Folder : 14 Correspondence: Warren, Fred D. to Frank X. Holl
1942
Box: 4 Folder : 15 Correspondence: Weyl, Sylvia Castleton, Outgoing
1948-1951
Box: 4 Folder : 16 Correspondence: Weyl, Sylvia Castleton to and from Raymond Ginger
1948
Box: 4 Folder : 17 Correspondence: Weyl, Sylvia Castleton to L. B. Woodcock
1947
Box: 4 Folder : 18 Correspondence: Woodcock, L. B. to Samuel Castleton
1945-1946
Box: 4 Folder : 19 Correspondence: Woodcock, L. B. to Sylvia Weyl Castleton
1947
Box: 4 Folder : 20 Debs, Eugene: Statements for United Press (from prison)
1920-1921
Box: 4 Folder : 21 Holl, Frank X. (Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen): Membership Credentials, Photographs of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Holl
1886 , 1888 , 1945
Box: 4 Folder : 22 Holl, Frank X.: "Reminiscences about Debs" (typescript)
undated
Box: 4 Folder : 23 Scrapbook
1889-1936

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Series IV: Oversize, 1919-1939, undated

Container 1 Container 2   Title Date
Box: 5 Folder : 5 The Call: Cartoons (2 items)
undated
Box: 5 Folder : 6 Card from Geo. Koop and Co-workers
1921
Box: 5 Folder : 1 Eugene Victor Debs Foundation: Publicity Materials
undated
Box: 5 Folder : 2 House of Debs Certificates
1930s?
Box: 5 Folder : 7 Memorial Poster
undated
Box: 5 Folder : 8 New Leader: Memorial Issue
1926
Box: 5 Folder : 3 Orr, Rev. Hugh Robert: The Last Christian: Eugene V. Debs
1920
Item: TAM.020.cuid877 Portrait bust of Eugene V. Debs (painted bronze)

Scope and Contents

Artist: Moses Wainer Dykaar

busts (figures)
1922
Item: TAM.020.cuid878 Portrait bust of Eugene V. Debs (painted white)

Scope and Contents

Artist: Moses Wainer Dykaar

busts (figures)
1922
Item: TAM.020.cuid857 Portrait bust of Eugene V. Debs

Scope and Contents

Artist: Louis Meyer

busts (figures)
1919
Item: TAM.020.cuid859 Portrait of Eugene V. Debs

Scope and Contents

Artist: N. B. Leisser

Paintings (visual works)
Undated
Item: TAM.020.cuid858 Portrait of Eugene V. Debs

Scope and Contents

Artist: C. C. Morrison

photomechanical prints.
1939
Box: 5 Folder : 4 Portraits (by Mitchell Loeb and C.C. Morrison)
undated
Box: 5 Folder : 9 The Call: Debs Supplement
1942

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