In efforts to get inside the fold, reporters have fellow-traveled with religious groups, posing as members or prospective recruits.
Reporters have worked as guards or gotten themselves arrested -- sometimes with the aid of authorities and sometimes without -- to investigate conditions inside prisons and jails.
Journalists who infiltrated U.S.-based Nazi bunds, the Ku Klux Klan, the Gomorrah, and other secret societies and closed groups.
Journalists from the United States and Australia get inside the post-Civil War practice of recruiting Pacific Islanders to work the world's non-U.S. plantations on extended contracts of indenture.
Medicare and Medicaid fraud have been perennial reporting topics since the 1960s, often requiring undercover techniques to amass specific details.
Among the most common of poses: journalists who elect to live as tramps, the homeless, or the abject poor.
The work of groups such as James O'Keefe's Project Veritas and Lila Rose's LiveAction and their undercover operations.
Journalism that required costuming or even physical transformation by reporters reporting on racial, ethnic, gender or social groups not their own.
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