In efforts to get inside the fold, reporters have fellow-traveled with religious groups, posing as members or prospective recruits.
Since the 1870s, journalists have been posing as patients or attendants to expose horrid conditions and treatment inside mental hospitals. Nellie Bly, incidentally, was not the first.
Journalists from the United States and Australia get inside the post-Civil War practice of recruiting Pacific Islanders to work the world's non-U.S. plantations on extended contracts of indenture.
Waste, fraud, graft, laxity, dilapidated conditions, corruption: Reporters have often used undercover tactics to investigate.
Journalism that required costuming or even physical transformation by reporters reporting on racial, ethnic, gender or social groups not their own.
Among the most common of poses: journalists who elect to live as tramps, the homeless, or the abject poor.
A gathering of the undercover and experiential reporting of Elizabeth Cochrane, later Seaman, who wrote under the pen name of Nellie Bly.
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