The work of groups such as James O'Keefe's Project Veritas and Lila Rose's LiveAction and their undercover operations.
These are stings to expose scam artists, quacks and hucksters who prey on the needs or naivete of their customers, clients, or patients.
Journalists have devised any number of ruses to get inside hospitals and clinics -- as patients or staff members.
These are examples of undercover reportage that were considered to have crossed ethical lines or that caused major legal wrangles.
Reporters have worked as guards or gotten themselves arrested -- sometimes with the aid of authorities and sometimes without -- to investigate conditions inside prisons and jails.
Journalism that required costuming or even physical transformation by reporters reporting on racial, ethnic, gender or social groups not their own.
Reporter efforts to get inside the world of lobbyists, both on Capitol Hill and in the statehouses.
Reporters have presented as teachers or students to get an inside view of what goes on in schools and colleges.
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