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Guide to the Horatio Gates papers, 1726-1828 (bulk 1774-1780) MS 240

New-York Historical Society
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© 2011 New-York Historical Society

Collection processed by Julia Lipkins

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Biographical note

Horatio Gates (1728-1806) served as a lieutenant in the British military (1749-1769) and as a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1774-1783).

1728 - Born at Maldon, Essex, England
1749 - Served with British military in Nova Scotia
1754 - Married Elizabeth Phillips of Halifax, Nova Scotia
1758 - Birth of only child, Robert
1761 - Served with Robert Monckton on military expedition in Martinique
1763 - Returned to England
1769 - Resigned from British Military service due to lack of career prospects
1772 - Relocated to Virginia
1774 - Served as Lieutenant Colonel in Virginia Militia
1775 - Appointed Brigadier General of the Continental Army
1776 - Appointed Major General and led expedition to Ticonderoga
1777 - Appointed to command Northern Department
1777 - Articles of Convention signed by Burgoyne and Gates after Battle of Saratoga
1777 - Implicated in “Conway Cabal”
1778 - Appointed to command Eastern Department
1780 - Appointed to command Southern Department
1780 - Defeated at Battle of Camden, South Carolina
1780 - Death of son, Robert
1780 - Congressional Court of Inquiry for failures at Battle of Camden
1780 - Returned to Virginia
1782 - Served with Continental Army in Newburgh, New York
1783 - Death of wife, Elizabeth
1783 - Retired from military service
1786 - Married Mary Vallance of Washington County, Virginia
1790 - Retired to Rose Hill Farm, New York
1800 - Served in New York legislature
1806 - Died at Rose Hill Farm, buried at Trinity Church in New York City

For a more comprehensive biography, see the following books available in the library:

The generals of Saratoga: John Burgoyne & Horatio Gates.

General Horatio Gates: a biography.

Horatio Gates & Benedict Arnold, American military commanders.

Horatio Gates: defender of American liberties.